galexander

11-01-2009, 01:10 PM

Consider the problem of powered space flight. The equation giving the kinetic energy obtained by any space vehicle which has been accelerated to a velocity v is of course, K.E. = ½ mv². However observe that to double the velocity of any space vehicle (by increasing v to 2v for example), four times as much energy would be required each time if the laws of the conservation of energy are to be maintained. This results from the relation between velocity and kinetic energy being non-linear. However surely this would go against common sense as the latter would tend to suggest that the formula were as follows, K.E. = mv.

Such an equation would simply state that to increase your velocity by a set amount in the frictionless environment of space the same proportion of energy would be required each time no matter what speed you were travelling at to begin with. The laws of conservation of energy would suggest that the energy supplied to the craft by its power source would at all times equal the kinetic energy obtained, taking into account the various efficiency ratios involved of course. If the kinetic energy did equal ½ mv² then this would result in increasingly larger amounts of fuel being needed to accelerate the craft which in turn would produce a limiting velocity requiring its own separate equation.

Of course we have all been taught since day one that it is actually momentum which equals mv and not kinetic energy. But is it really that straight forward? For example is momentum a force or is it actually a form of energy? Indeed the units it is measured in are rather peculiar, for example kilograms per metre per second. But which do these denote, force or energy?

Consider also that at present the world of physics recognises both the conservation of momentum and the conservation of kinetic energy. However how can both be conserved simultaneously in any given situation if one is equal to mv and the other ½ mv²? One is directly equal to ‘v’ and the other ‘v²’. It doesn’t take a brilliant mathematician to observe that this is clearly impossible.

No, I believe that the current equation for kinetic energy is wrong and should be replaced by the equation for momentum, mv.

But why is the current equation for kinetic energy wrong? This I believe is a result of the equation it is ultimately derived from, Work Done = Force x Distance, which is wrong also. Consider the following two examples:

Two men of exactly the same physical strength push two differing weights mounted on sets of wheels. If the second man pushes his weight for twice the length of time as the first man but with the exact same force surely he would have done twice as much work as a result? However the physics books inform us that this is not actually the case as the accepted relation between work and force is Work Done = Force x Distance.

However the second situation would surely indicate that this accepted relation would never apply. If the weight pushed by the second man is exactly double that of the first’s and is pushed through the exact same distance, each man could not have performed the exact same amount of work while pushing with the same force. On the contrary the second man would have needed to have pushed the heavier weight for a longer duration of time using the exact same force in order to have moved it through the same unit distance (as a result of its acceleration being less from F = ma), and this would have resulted in more work having been done. Again this must be the result of a new relation, Work Done = Force x Time. Our first example would also indicate the same relation.

The equation for kinetic energy is derived from the equation Work Done = Force x Time as follows:

K.E. = W.D. = ∫ F.dx = ∫ m dv/dt . dx = ∫ m dx/dt . dv

= ∫ m v dv = ½ mv²,

However if Work Done is actually equal to Force x Time this would change the existing equation for kinetic energy as follows:

K.E. = W.D. = ∫ F.dt = ∫ m dv/dt . dt = ∫ m dv = mv.

What are the consequences of this?

Well, there are many and I can’t go into them all. However first of all it has to be acknowledged that the current erroneous equation for kinetic energy is used throughout Quantum Physics and Relativity. This fact alone would tend to undermine much of the content of these two schools of thought in the world of physics.

Another stunning consequence is found in the world of astronomy in that meteorites no longer explode on impact. It has always been hotly debated whether the craters on both the Moon and the Earth were volcanic or meteoritic in origin. Certainly some of the low lying craters on Earth are provably volcanic in origin.

Perhaps you can think of other consequence yourselves?

Such an equation would simply state that to increase your velocity by a set amount in the frictionless environment of space the same proportion of energy would be required each time no matter what speed you were travelling at to begin with. The laws of conservation of energy would suggest that the energy supplied to the craft by its power source would at all times equal the kinetic energy obtained, taking into account the various efficiency ratios involved of course. If the kinetic energy did equal ½ mv² then this would result in increasingly larger amounts of fuel being needed to accelerate the craft which in turn would produce a limiting velocity requiring its own separate equation.

Of course we have all been taught since day one that it is actually momentum which equals mv and not kinetic energy. But is it really that straight forward? For example is momentum a force or is it actually a form of energy? Indeed the units it is measured in are rather peculiar, for example kilograms per metre per second. But which do these denote, force or energy?

Consider also that at present the world of physics recognises both the conservation of momentum and the conservation of kinetic energy. However how can both be conserved simultaneously in any given situation if one is equal to mv and the other ½ mv²? One is directly equal to ‘v’ and the other ‘v²’. It doesn’t take a brilliant mathematician to observe that this is clearly impossible.

No, I believe that the current equation for kinetic energy is wrong and should be replaced by the equation for momentum, mv.

But why is the current equation for kinetic energy wrong? This I believe is a result of the equation it is ultimately derived from, Work Done = Force x Distance, which is wrong also. Consider the following two examples:

Two men of exactly the same physical strength push two differing weights mounted on sets of wheels. If the second man pushes his weight for twice the length of time as the first man but with the exact same force surely he would have done twice as much work as a result? However the physics books inform us that this is not actually the case as the accepted relation between work and force is Work Done = Force x Distance.

However the second situation would surely indicate that this accepted relation would never apply. If the weight pushed by the second man is exactly double that of the first’s and is pushed through the exact same distance, each man could not have performed the exact same amount of work while pushing with the same force. On the contrary the second man would have needed to have pushed the heavier weight for a longer duration of time using the exact same force in order to have moved it through the same unit distance (as a result of its acceleration being less from F = ma), and this would have resulted in more work having been done. Again this must be the result of a new relation, Work Done = Force x Time. Our first example would also indicate the same relation.

The equation for kinetic energy is derived from the equation Work Done = Force x Time as follows:

K.E. = W.D. = ∫ F.dx = ∫ m dv/dt . dx = ∫ m dx/dt . dv

= ∫ m v dv = ½ mv²,

However if Work Done is actually equal to Force x Time this would change the existing equation for kinetic energy as follows:

K.E. = W.D. = ∫ F.dt = ∫ m dv/dt . dt = ∫ m dv = mv.

What are the consequences of this?

Well, there are many and I can’t go into them all. However first of all it has to be acknowledged that the current erroneous equation for kinetic energy is used throughout Quantum Physics and Relativity. This fact alone would tend to undermine much of the content of these two schools of thought in the world of physics.

Another stunning consequence is found in the world of astronomy in that meteorites no longer explode on impact. It has always been hotly debated whether the craters on both the Moon and the Earth were volcanic or meteoritic in origin. Certainly some of the low lying craters on Earth are provably volcanic in origin.

Perhaps you can think of other consequence yourselves?