08-19-2006, 07:33 AM
Some good old education is required here. Kids, let's learn something about the great one:
Ado'f Hitler (he'p·info) (April 20, 1889 – April 30, 1945) was Chancello' of Germenny fum 1933, an' Führer (Leader) of Germenny fum 1934, until his death. He was leader of th' Nashunal Socialist German Wawkers Party (Nashunalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei o' NSDAP), better known as th' Nazi Party. Hitler gained power in a Germenny facin' crisis af'er Wo'ld War I, usin' charismatic o'ato'y an' propagan'a, appealin' t'economic need of th' lower an' middle classes, nashunalism an' anti-Semitism t'establish an autho'itarian regime. Wif a restruckured economah an' rearmed military, Hitler pursued an aggressive fo'eign policy wif th' intenshun of expan'in' German Lebensraum ("livin' space") an' triggered Wo'ld War Iah in Europe by o'derin' th' invashun of Polan'. At th' height of its power, Nazi Germenny occupied most of Europe, but it an' th' Axis Powers were eventually defeated by th' Allies. By then, Hitler's racial policies had culminated in th' junocide of 11 million varmints, includin' about six million Jews, in whut is now known as th' Holocaest. In th' final days of th' war, Hitler committed sueycide in his unnergroun' bunker in Berlin wif his noolywed wife, Eva Braun, as enny fool kin plainly see. Contents [hide] * 1 Early years o 1.1 Chilehood an' heritage o 1.2 Early adulthood in Vienna an' Munich o 1.3 Wo'ld War I * 2 Th' early years of th' Nazi Party o 2.1 Hitler's intry into politics o 2.2 Th' Beer Hall Putsch o 2.3 Th' rebuildin' of th' party * 3 Th' road t'power o 3.1 Th' Brünin' administrashun o 3.2 Th' cabinets of Papen an' Schleicher o 3.3 Hitler's appointment as Chancello' o 3.4 Reichstag Fire an' th' March eleckshuns o 3.5 Th' "Day of Potsdam" an' th' Enablin' Ack o 3.6 Removal of remainin' limits * 4 Th' Third Reich o 4.1 Economics an' culture o 4.2 Represshun o 4.3 Rearmament an' noo alliances o 4.4 Th' Holocaest * 5 Wo'ld War II o 5.1 Openin' moves o 5.2 Path t'defeat o 5.3 Defeat an' death * 6 Legacy * 7 Hitler's religious beliefs * 8 Medical health * 9 Hitler's fambly o 9.1 Th' origeen of th' name "Hitler" * 10 Varmints assosheeated wif Hitler * 11 Trivia * 12 Hitler in various media o 12.1 Movie clip o 12.2 Films o 12.3 Docoomntaries o 12.4 Dramatizashuns o 12.5 Further readin' o 12.6 Speeches an' talk by Hitler * 13 See also * 14 References * 15 External links  Early years  Chilehood an' heritage Ado'f Hitler as an infant. Enlarge Ado'f Hitler as an infant. Ado'fus Hitler was born an' raised on April 20, 1889, aroun' 6:30 PM LMT, at Braunau is Inn, Aestria, a small town in Upper Aestria, on th' bo'der wif Germenny. He was th' third son an' th' fourth of six chillun of Alois Hitler (born an' raised Schicklgruber) (1837–1903), a mino' cestoms official, an' Klaree Pölzl (1860–1907), his second cousin, an' third wife. Alois was born an' raised illegitimate an' fo' th' fust thirty-nine years of his life bo'e his Mammy's name, Schicklgruber. Th' name Hitler appears in th' maternal an' paternal line. Both Hitler's gran'Mammy on his Mammy's side an' his gran'Pappy on his Pappy's side were named Hitler, o' rather variants of it, fo' th' fambly name was variously writ as Hiedler, Huetler, Huettler an' Hitler. On account o' of Ado'f's Mammy, an episcopal dispensashun had t'be obtained fo' th' marriage. Of Alois an' Klaree's six chillun, only Ado'f an' his yo'nger sister Ebenezera retched adulthood, cuss it all t' tarnation. Alois Hitler also had a son (Alois Junio') an' a dotter (Angela) by his second wife. In 1876, Alois began usin' th' name of his stepPappy, Johann Geo'g Hiedler, af'er visitin' a priess responsible fo' birth registries an' declarin' thet Geo'g was his Pappy (Alois gave th' impresshun thet Geo'g was still alive but he was long daid). Th' spellin' was probably changed t'"Hitler" by a clerk. Shet mah mouth! Later, Ado'f Hitler was accused by his political inemies of not rightfully bein' a Hitler, but a Schicklgruber. This hyar was also sploited in Allied propagan'a durin' th' Second Wo'ld War when pamphlets barin' th' phrase "Heil Schicklgruber" were airdropped on over German cities.[citashun needed] Ado'f was legally born an' raised a Hitler, howevah, an' was also closely related t'Hiedler through his maternal gran'Mammy, Johanna Hiedler. Hitler was not sho'nuff who his paternal gran'Pappy was, but it was probably eifer Johann Geo'g Hiedler o' his brother Johann Nepomuk Hiedler. Thar haf been rumours thet Hitler was one-quarter Jewish  an' thet his paternal gran'Mammy, Maria Schicklgruber, had become pregnant af'er wawkin' as a servant in a Jewish household in Graz. Durin' th' 1920s, th' implicashuns of these rumours along wif his known fambly histo'y were politically splosive, especially fo' th' proponent of a racist ideology. Opponents tried t'prove thet Hitler, th' leader of th' anti-Semitic Nazi Party, had Jewish o' Czech ancesto's. Although these rumours were nevah cornfirmed, fo' Hitler they were reason inough t'conceal his origeens. Soviet propagan'a insisted Hitler was a Jew, though mo'e modern research tends t'diminish th' probability thet he had Jewish ancesto's. Acco'din' t'Billy Bob G. L. Waite in Th' Psychopathic God: Ado'f Hitler, Hitler made it illegal fo' German wimmen t'wawk in Jewish households, an' af'er th' Anschluss wif Aestria, Hitler had his Pappy's hometown obliterated as an artillery prackice area. Hitler seemed t'fear thet he was Jewish, an' as Waite points out, this hyar fack is mo'e impo'tant than whether he acshully was. Acco'din' t'Billy Joe Shirer, in his famous wawk Th' Rise an' Fall of th' Third Reich, "Hitler's native districk in th' Waldviertel, is a hilly, wooded country of peasant villages an' small farms, an' though only some fif'y miles fum Vienna it has a somewhut remote an' impovahished air, as eff'n th' main currents of Aestrian life had passed it by. Th' inhabitants tend t'be dour, like th' Czech peasants t'th' no'th of them, dawgone it. Intermarriage is common, as in th' case of Hitler's parents, an' illegitimacy is frequent." Shirer also writes of Ado'f's love affair wif his niece. "In th' summer of 1928, Hitler aged 39, was th' Nazi party leader, an' he fell in love of Geli Raubal, his 20 year old niece, th' dotter of his widowed ha'f-sister, Angela Raubal, ah reckon. He took her ev'rywhar, t'meetin's an' cornferences, on long walks in th' mountains an' t'th' cafés an' theaters in Munich. Gostip about th' party leader an' his right purdy blond niece was inevitable in Munich an' throughout Nazi circles in southern Germenny. By 1931 some deep rif' whose origeens an' nature haf nevah been fully assartined grew between them, dawgone it. "Whutevah it was thet darkened th' love between th' uncle an' his niece, their quarrels became mo'e violent an' at th' end of th' summer of 1931 Geli announced thet she was returnin' t'Vienna t'resoom her voice studies. Hitler fo'bade her t'go. Th' next mo'nin' Geli Raubal was foun' shot daid in her room, dawgone it. Th' co'oner repo'ted thet a bullet had gone through her chess below th' lef' sh'der an' penetrated th' heart; it seemed beyond doubt thet th' shot was se'f-inflicked, cuss it all t' tarnation. Yet fo' years af'erward in Munich thar was murky gostip thet Geli Raubal had been murdered — by Hitler in a rage, by Himmler t'eliminate a situashun thet had become embarrassin' t'th' party. But no credible evidence evah turned up t'substantiate sech rumo's." On account o' of Alois Hitler's professhun, his fambly moved frequently, fum Braunau t'Passau, Lambach, Leondin', an' Linz. As a yo'ng chile, Hitler was repo'tedly a fine student at th' various elementary skoos he attended; howevah, in sixth grade (1900–1), his fust year of high skoo (Realschule) in Linz, he failed completely an' had t'repeat th' grade. His skoo marms repo'ted thet he had "no desuhe t'wawk." Hitler later explained this hyar ejoocayshunal slump as a kind of rebellion aginst his Pappy Alois, who wanted th' fella t'foller him in a career as a cestoms official, although Ado'f wanted t'become a painter. This hyar explanashun is further suppo'ted by Hitler's later dexcripshun of hisse'f as a misunnerstood artist. Howevah, af'er Alois died on January 3, 1903, when Ado'f was 13, Hitler's skoowawk did not improve. At th' age of 16, Hitler lef' skoo wif no qualificashuns.  Early adulthood in Vienna an' Munich Fum 1905 onward, Hitler was able t'live th' life of a Bohemian on a Pappyless chile's penshun an' suppo't fum his Mammy. He was rejecked twice by th' Academah of Fine Arts Vienna (1907 – 1908) due t'"unfitness fo' paintin'", an' was told his abilities lay rather in th' field of architeckure. His own memoirs refleck a fascinashun wif th' subjeck: "Th' purpose of mah trip was t'study th' pitcher gallery in th' Court Museum, but ah had eyes fo' scarcely ennythin' but th' Museum itse'f. Fum mo'nin' until late at night, ah ran fum one objeck of interess to t'other, but it was allus th' buildin's which held mah primary interest." (Mein Kampf, Chapper II, pareegraph 3). Follerin' th' skoo recko''s recommendashun, he too became cornvinced this hyar was th' path t'pursue, yet he lacked th' right academic prepareeshun fo' architeckure skoo: "In a few days ah mahse'f knowed thet ah sh'd some day become an architeck. To be sho'nuff, it was an incredibly hard road; fo' th' studies ah had neglecked outta spite at th' Realschule were so'ely needed, cuss it all t' tarnation. One c'd not attend th' Academah's architeckural skoo wifout havin' attended th' buildin' skoo at th' Technic, an' th' latter required a high-skoo degree. ah had none of all this. Th' fu'fillment of mah artistic dream seemed physically impostible.''"(Mein Kampf, Chapper II, pareegraph 5 & 6). On December 21, 1907, his Mammy Klaree died a painful death fum breast kincer at th' age of 47. Hitler gave his share of th' o'phans' benefits t'his yo'nger sister Ebenezera, but when he was 21 he inherited some money fum an aunt. He wawked as a strugglin' painter in Vienna, copyin' scenes fum postcards an' sellin' his paintin's t'merchants an' tourists (thar is evidence he prodooced on over 2000 paintin's an' drawin's befo'e Wo'ld War I). A watercolour by Ado'f Hitler depickin' Laon, France. Enlarge A watercolour by Ado'f Hitler depickin' Laon, France. Af'er th' second refusal fum th' Academah of Arts, Hitler grajoolly scooted outta money. By 1909, he sought refuge in a homeless shelter, an' by th' beginnin' of 1910 had settled permanently into a house fo' pore wawkin' men, as enny fool kin plainly see. He arned spendin' money by paintin' tourist postcards of Vienna scenery. Sevahal biographers haf noted thet a Jewish resident of th' house named Hanisch he'ped him sell his postcards.[citashun needed] It was in Vienna thet Hitler fust became an ackive anti-Semite. This hyar was a common stance among Aestrians at th' time, mixin' tradishunal religious prejudice wif recent racist theo'ies. Vienna had a large Jewish community, includin' menny Orthodox Jews fum Eastern Europe. (See Histo'y of Vienna.) Hitler was slowly influenced on over time by th' writin's of th' race ideologist an' anti-Semite Lanz von Liebenfels an' polemics fum politicians sech as Karl Lueger, foun'er of th' Jedtian Social Party an' mayo' of Vienna, an' Geo'g Ritter von Schönerer, leader of th' pan-Germanic Away fum Rome! movement. He later wrote in his book Mein Kampf thet his transishun fum opposin' anti-Semitism on religious groun's t'suppo'tin' it on racial groun's came fum havin' see an Orthodox Jew: "Thar were mighty few Jews in Linz. In th' course of centuries th' Jews who lived thar had become Europeanized in external appeareence an' were so much like other hoomin bein's thet ah even looked upon them as Germans. Th' reason whuffo' ah did not then perceive th' absurdity of sech an illushun was thet th' only external mark which ah reckanized as distin'uishin' them fum us was th' prackice of their peekoolyar religion, as enny fool kin plainly see. As ah thunk thet they were persecuted on account of their faif mah avahshun t'hearin' remarks aginst them grew almost into a feelin' of abho'rence. ah did not in th' least suspeck thet thar c'd be sech a thin' as a systematic anti-Semitism, dawgone it. Once, when passin' through th' inner City, ah suddenly incountered a phenomenon in a long caf'an an' warin' black side-locks. Mah fust thunk was: Is this hyar a Jew? They sartinly did not haf this appeareence in Linz. ah carefully watched th' man stealthily an' cautiously but th' longer ah gazed at th' peekoolyar countenance an' examined it feature by feature, th' mo'e th' quesshun shaped itse'f in mah brain: Is this hyar a German?" (Mein Kampf, vol, ah reckon. 1, chap. 2: "Years of study an' sufferin' in Vienna") Hitler began t'claim th' Jews were natural inemies of whut he called th' Aryan race. He held them responsible fo' Aestria's crisis. He also identified sartin fo'ms of Socialism an' especially Bolshevism, which had menny Jews among its leaders, as Jewish movements, mergin' his anti-Semitism wif anti-Marxism, dawgone it. Blamin' Germenny's military defeat on th' 1917 Revolushuns, he cornsidered Jews th' cu'prit of Imperial Germenny's military defeat an' subsequent economic problems as fine. Hitler's obsesshun wif th' Jews sometimes vahged on th' ridiculous. He blamed varmintal misfo'tunes on th' Jews an' especially on rabbis. Juneralisin' fum tumultuous scenes in th' parliament of th' multi-nashunal Aestria Monarchy, he developed a firm belief in th' inferio'ity of th' democratic parliamentary system, which fo'med th' basis of his political views. Howevah, acco'din' t'Augest Kubizek, his close friend an' roommate at th' time, he was mo'e interested in th' operas of Richard Wagner than in politics. A lan'scape painted by Ado'f Hitler. Enlarge A lan'scape painted by Ado'f Hitler. Hitler received a small inheritance fum his Pappy in May 1913 an' moved t'Munich. He later wrote in Mein Kampf thet he had allus longed t'live in a "real" German city. In Munich, he became mo'e interested in architeckure an' th' writin's of Hoeston Stewart Chamberlain, as enny fool kin plainly see. Movin' t'Munich also he'ped him excape military service in Aestria fo' a time, but th' Aestrian armah later arrested him, dawgone it. Af'er a physical exam (durin' which his height was measured at 173 cm, o' 5 f' 8 in) an' a corntrite plea, he was deemed unfit fo' service an' allered t'return t'Munich. Howevah, when Germenny intered Wo'ld War ah in Augest 1914, he eemeejutly petishuned Kin' Ludwig IIah of Bavaria fo' permisshun t'sarve in a Bavarian regiment, this hyar requess was granted, an' Ado'f Hitler inlisted in th' Bavarian armah.  Wo'ld War I Hitler sar ackive service in France an' Belgium as a messenger fo' th' regimental haidquarters of th' 16th Bavarian Resarve Regiment (also called Regiment List af'er its fust comman'er), which exposed him t'enemah fire. Unlike his feller soldiers, Hitler repo'tedly nevah complained about th' grub o' hard corndishuns, preferrin' t'talk about art o' histo'y. He also drew some cartoons an' instruckshunal drawin's fo' th' armah noospaper. His behaviour as a soldier was cornsidered somewhut sloppy, but his regular duties required takin' dispatches t'an' fum fightin' areas an' he was twice deco'ated fo' his perfo'mance of these duties. He received th' Iron Crost, Second Class in December 1914 an' th' Iron Crost, Fust Class in Augest 1918, an honour rarely given t'a Gefreiter. Howevah, on account o' of th' percepshun of "a lack of leadership skills" on th' part of some of th' regimental staff, as fine as (acco'din' t'Kershaw) Hitler's unwillin'ness t'leave regimental haidquarters (which'd haf been likely in event of promoshun), he was nevah promoted t'Unteroffizier. Other histo'ians, howevah, say thet th' reason he was not promoted is thet he did not haf German citizenship. His duty stashun at regimental haidquarters, while offen dangerous, gave Hitler time t'pursue his artwawk. Durin' Ockober 1916 in no'thern France, Hitler was woun'ed in th' leg, but returned t'th' front in March 1917. He received th' Woun' Badge later thet year, as his injury was th' direck result of hostile fire. Sebastian Haffner, referrin' t'Hitler's experience at th' front, suggests he did haf at least some unnerstan'in' of th' military. It is also believed thet durin' th' Battle of Fumelles, when th' Aestralian troops charged th' bunkers, a group of aroun' 15 Diggers were only metres fum th' bunker in which th' yo'ng Ado'f Hitler was wifin, as enny fool kin plainly see. Some say thet had th' machinegunners in th' bunker reloaded some 5-10 seconds later, they'd've been able t'take th' bunker, an' no doubt cappure o' kill Hitler. Hitler was cornsidered a "co'reck" soldier but was repo'tedly unpopular wif his comrades on account o' of an uncritical attitude toward officers. "Respeck th' superio', doesn't corntradick ennybody, obey blindly," he said, dexcribin' his attitude while on trial in 1924. On Ockober 15, 1918, sho'tly befo'e th' end of th' war, Hitler was admitted t'a field horspital, tempo'arily blinded by a poison gas attack. Shet mah mouth! Research by Bernhard Ho'stmann indicates th' blindness may haf been th' result of a hysterical reackshun t'Germenny's defeat. Hitler later said it was durin' this hyar experience thet he became cornvinced th' purpose of his life was t'"save Germenny". Meanwhile he was treated by a military physician an' specialist in psychiatry, who repo'tedly diagnosed th' co'po'al as "incompetent t'comman' varmints" an' "dangerously psychotic". Some scholars, includin' Pansy Dawidowicz, argue thet an intenshun t'mass murder Europe's Jews was fully fo'med in Hitler's mind, though he probably hadn't thunk through how it c'd be done. Two passages in Mein Kampf menshun th' use of poison gas: At th' beginnin' of th' Great War, o' even durin' th' War, eff'n twelve o' fif'een thousan' of these Jews who were co'ruppin' th' nashun had been fo'ced t'submit t'poison-gas . . . then th' millions of sacrifices made at th' front'd not haf been in vain, as enny fool kin plainly see. (Voloom 2, Chapper 15 "Th' Right t'Se'f-Defence"). These tackics is based on an accurate estimashun of hoomin weakness an' muss lead t'success, wif almost mathematical sartinty, unless t'other side also larns how t'fight poison gas wif poison gas. Th' weaker natures muss be told thet hyar it is a case of t'be o' not t'be. (Voloom 1, Chapper 2 "Years of Study an' Sufferin' in Vienna") Hitler had long admired Germenny, an' durin' th' war he had become a passhunate German patriot, although he did not become a German citizen until 1932 (th' year befo'e he took on over Germenny). He was shocked by Germenny's capitulashun in November 1918 even while th' German armah still held inemah territo'y. Like menny other German nashunalists, Hitler believed in th' Dolchstoßlejunde ("dagger-stab lejund") which claimed thet th' armah, "undefeated in th' field," had been "stabbed in th' back" by civilian leaders an' Marxists back on th' home front. These politicians were later dubbed th' November Criminals. Th' Treaty of Versailles deprived Germenny of various territo'ies, demilitarized th' Rhinelan' an' imposed other economically damagin' sanckshuns. Th' treaty also declared Germenny th' cu'prit fo' all th' ho'ro's of th' Great War, as a basis fo' later imposin' not yet specified repareeshuns on Germenny (th' amount was repeatedly revised unner th' Dawes Plan, Yo'ng Plan an' th' Hoovah Mo'ato'ium). Germans, howevah, perceived th' treaty an' especially th' pareegraph on th' German guilt as a hoomiliashun, not least as it was damagin' in th' extreme t'their pride. Fo' example, thar was nearly a full demilitarisashun of th' armed fo'ces, allerin' Germenny only 6 battleships, no submarines, no air fo'ce, an armah of 100,000 wifout cornscripshun an' no armoured vehicles. Th' treaty was an impo'tant facko' in both th' social an' political corndishuns incountered by Hitler an' his Nashunal Socialist Party as they sought power. Hitler an' his party used th' signin' of th' treaty by th' "November Criminals" as a reason t'build up Germenny so thet it c'd nevah happen agin. He also used th' 'November Criminals' as scapehoun'dogs, although at th' Paris peace cornference, these politicians had mighty li'l choice in th' matter.  Th' early years of th' Nazi Party A copy of Ado'f Hitler's fo'ged DAP membership card, cuss it all t' tarnation. His acshul membership number was 555 (th' 55th member of th' party - th' 500 was added t'make th' group appear larger) but later th' number was redooced t'create th' impresshun thet Hitler was one of th' foun'in' members (Ian Kershaw Hubris). Hitler had wanted t'create his own party, but was o'dered by his superio's in th' Reichswehr t'infiltrate an existin' one instead, cuss it all t' tarnation. Enlarge A copy of Ado'f Hitler's fo'ged DAP membership card, cuss it all t' tarnation. His acshul membership number was 555 (th' 55th member of th' party - th' 500 was added t'make th' group appear larger) but later th' number was redooced t'create th' impresshun thet Hitler was one of th' foun'in' members (Ian Kershaw Hubris). Hitler had wanted t'create his own party, but was o'dered by his superio's in th' Reichswehr t'infiltrate an existin' one instead, cuss it all t' tarnation.  Hitler's intry into politics Main article: Hitler's political beliefs Af'er th' Fust Wo'ld War, Hitler reJawjad in th' armah, which was mainly ingaged in suppressin' communist uprisin's bustin' out acrost Germenny, includin' Munich (th' Bavarian Soviet Republic), whar Hitler returned in 1919. He took part in "nashunal reckonin'" courses o'ganized by th' Ejoocayshun an' Propagan'a Department (Depp Ib/P) of th' Bavarian Reichswehr Group, Headquarters 4 unner Cappain Mayr. A key purpose of this hyar group was t'create a scapehoun'dog[citashun needed] fo' th' outbust of th' war an' Germenny's defeat. Th' scapehoun'dogs were foun' in "internashunal Jewry", communists, an' politicians acrost th' party speckrum, especially th' parties of th' Weimar Coalishun, who were deemed "November Criminals". In July 1919, Hitler was appointed a Verbindungsmann (po-lice spy) of an Aufklärungskomman'o (Intellyjunce Comman'o) of th' Reichswehr, fo' th' purpose of influencin' other soldiers toward similar ideas an' was assigned t'infiltrate a small party, th' German Wawkers' Party (DAP), which was thunk of t'be a postibly socialist party. Durin' his inspeckshun of th' party, Hitler was impressed wif Drexler's anti-Semitic, nashunalist an' anti-Marxist ideas, which favoured an Hegelian corncepp of th' strong unyversally present state, a "non-Jewish" vahshun of socialism an' mutual solidarity of all members of society. Hyar Hitler also met Dietrich Eckart, one of th' early foun'ers of th' party an' member of th' occult Thule Society. Eckart became Hitler's mento', exchangin' ideas wif him, larnin' him how t'dress an' speak, an' intryducin' him t'a wide range of varmints. Hitler in return thanked Eckart by payin' tribute t'him in th' second voloom of Mein Kampf. Hitler was discharged fum th' armah in March 1920 an' wif his fo'mer superio's' corntinued incouragement began participatin' full time in th' party's ackivities. By early 1921, Ado'f Hitler was bea-comin' highly effeckive at speakin' in front of even larger crowds. In February, Hitler spoke befo'e a crowd of nearly six thousan' in Munich. To publicize th' meetin', he sent out two truckloads of Party suppo'ters t'drive aroun' wif swastikas, cuz a commoshun an' throw out leaflets, their fust use of this hyar tackic. Hitler gained noto'iety outside of th' Party fo' his rowdy, polemic speeches aginst th' Treaty of Versailles, rival politicians (includin' monarchists, nashunalists an' other non-internashunalist socialists) an' especially aginst Marxists an' Jews. Th' German Wawkers' Party was centered in Munich which had become a hotbed of German nashunalists who included Armah officers determined t'crush Marxism an' unnermine o' even on overthrow th' yo'ng German democracy centred in Berlin, as enny fool kin plainly see. Grajoolly they noticed Ado'f Hitler an' his growin' movement as a vehicle t'hitch themselves to. Hitler traveled t'Berlin t'viset nashunalist groups durin' th' summer of 1921 an' in his absence thar was an unspecked revolt among th' DAP leadership in Munich. Th' Party was helter-skelter by an executive committee whose origeenal members cornsidered Hitler t'be on overbarin' an' even dickato'ial, ah reckon. To weaken Hitler's posishun they fo'med an alliance wif a group of socialists fum Augsburg, acco'din' t' th' code o' th' heells! Hitler rushed back t'Munich an' countered them by tennerin' his resignashun fum th' Party on July 11, 1921. When they reckanized th' lost of Hitler'd effeckively mean th' end of th' Party, he seized th' moment an' announced he'd return on th' condishun thet he was made chairman an' given dickato'ial powers. Infuriated committee members (includin' foun'er Anton Drexler) held out at fust. Meanwhile an anonymous pamphlet appeared intitled Ado'f Hitler: Is he a traito'?, attackin' Hitler's lest fo' power an' criticizin' th' violence-prone min aroun' him, dawgone it. Hitler responded t'its publicashun in a Munich noospaper by sueyng fo' libel an' later won a small settlement. Th' executive committee of th' DAP eventually backed down an' Hitler's deman's were put t'a vote of party members. Hitler received 543 votes fo' an' only one aginst. At th' next gatherin' on July 29, 1921, Ado'f Hitler was intrydooced as Führer of th' Nashunal Socialist Party, markin' th' fust time this hyar title was publicly used, cuss it all t' tarnation. Hitler changed th' name of th' party t'th' Nashunal Socialist German Wawkers Party (Nashunalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei o' NSDAP). Hitler's beer hall o'ato'y, attackin' Jews, social democrats, liberals, reackshunary monarchists, capitalists an' communists, began attrackin' adharnts. Early follerers included Rudo'f Hess, th' fo'mer air fo'ce pilot Hermann Görin', an' th' flamfellaant armah cappain Ernst Röhm, who became haid of th' Nazis' pareemilitary o'ganizashun, th' SA, which protecked meetin's an' attacked political opponents. He also attracked th' attenshun of local business interests, was accepped into influential circles of Munich society an' became assosheeated wif wartime Juneral Erich Ludendo'ff durin' this hyar time.  Th' Beer Hall Putsch Main article: Beer Hall Putsch Encouraged by this hyar early suppo't, Hitler decided t'use Ludendo'ff as a front in an attempp t'seize power later known as th' Beer Hall Putsch (an' sometimes as th' Hitler Putsch o' Munich Putsch). Th' Nazi Party had copied th' Italian Fascists in appeareence an' also had adopped some programmatical points an' now, in th' turbulent year 1923, Hitler wanted t'emulate Mussolini's "March on Rome" by stagin' his own "Campaign in Berlin". Hitler an' Ludendo'ff obtained th' clan'estine suppo't of Gestav von Kahr, Bavaria's de facko ruler along wif leadin' figgers in th' Reichswehr an' th' po-lice. As political posters show, Ludendo'ff, Hitler an' th' haids of th' Bavarian po-lice an' military planned on fo'min' a noo govment. Howevah on November 8, 1923 Kahr an' th' military wifdrew their suppo't durin' a meetin' in th' Bürgerbräukeller, a large beer hall outside of Munich. A surprised Hitler had them arrested an' proceeded wif th' coup. Unknown t'him, Kahr an' t'other detainees had been released on Ludendo'ff's o'ders af'er he obtained their wo'd not t'interfere. Thet night they prepared resistance measures aginst th' coup an' in th' mo'nin', when Hitler an' his follerers marched fum th' beer hall t'th' Bavarian War Ministry t'ovahthrow th' Bavarian govment as a start t'their "March on Berlin," th' armah quickly dispersed them (Ludendo'ff was woun'ed an' a few other Nazis were killed). Hitler fled t'th' home of friends an' corntemplated sueycide. He was soon arrested fo' high treason an' appointed A'fred Rosenberg as tempo'ary leader of th' party but foun' hisse'f in an invironment somewhut receppive t'his beliefs. Durin' Hitler's trial, sympathetic magistrates allered Hitler t'turn his debacle into a propagan'a stunt. He was given almost unlimited amounts of time t'present his argoomnts t'th' court along wif a large hide of th' German varmints, an' his popularity soared when he voiced basic nashunalistic sentiments shared by th' public. On April 1, 1924 Hitler was sentenced t'five years' imprisonment at Lan'sberg prison fo' th' crime of cornspiracy t'commit treason, as enny fool kin plainly see. Hitler received favoured treatment fum th' guards an' had much fan mail fum admirers. While at Lan'sberg he dickated his political book Mein Kampf (Mah Struggle) t'his deputy Rudo'f Hess. Th' book, dedicated t'Thule Society member Dietrich Eckart, was both an autybiography an' an exposishun of his political ideology. It was published in two volooms in 1925 an' 1926 respeckively, but did not sell mighty fine until Hitler came t'power (though by th' late 1930s nearly ev'ry household in Germenny had a copy of it). Meanwhile, as he was cornsidered relatively harmless, Hitler was released on December 20, 1924.  Th' rebuildin' of th' party At th' time of Hitler's release, th' political situashun in Germenny had calmed down, an' th' economah had improved, which hampered Hitler's oppo'tunities fo' agitashun. Instead, he began a long effo't t'rebuild th' dwindlin' party. Though th' Hitler Putsch had given Hitler some nashunal prominence, his party's mainstay was still Munich. To spread th' party t'th' no'th, Hitler also assimilated independent groups, sech as th' Nuremberg-based Wistrich, led by Julius Streicher, who now became Gauleiter of Franconia. As Hitler was still banned fum public speeches, he appointed Grego' Strasser, who in 1924 had been elecked t'th' Reichstag, as Reichso'ganisashunsleiter, autho'izin' him t'o'ganise th' party in no'thern Germenny. Grego', joined by his yo'nger brother Otto an' Billy Joe Goebbels, steered an increasin'ly independent course, emphasizin' th' socialist element in th' party's programme. Th' Arbeitsgemeinschaf' der Gauleiter No'd-Wess became an internal opposishun, thrett upin' Hitler's autho'ity, but this hyar fackshun was defeated at th' Bamberg Conference (1926), durin' which Goebbels joined Hitler. Af'er this hyar encounter, Hitler centralized th' party even mo'e an' asserted th' Führerprinzip as th' basic principle of party o'ganizashun. Leaders were not elecked by their group but were rather appointed by their superio' an' were answerable t'them while deman'in' unquesshunin' obedience fum their inferio's. Consissent wif Hitler's disdain fo' democracy, all power an' autho'ity devolved fum th' top down, as enny fool kin plainly see. A key element of Hitler's appeal was his ability t'convey a sense of offended nashunal pride cuzd by th' Treaty of Versailles imposed on th' defeated German Empire by th' Entente. Germenny had lost economically impo'tant territo'y in Europe along wif its colonies an' in admittin' t'sole responsibility fo' th' war had agreed t'pay a huge repareeshuns bill totalin' 32 billion marks. Most Germans bitterly resented these terms but early Nazi attempps t'gain suppo't by blamin' these hoomiliashuns on "internashunal Jewry" were not particularly successful wif th' elecko'ate. Th' party larned quickly an' soon a mo'e subtle propagan'a emerged, combinin' anti-Semitism wif an attack on th' failures of th' "Weimar system" an' th' parties suppo'tin' it. Havin' failed in on overthrowin' th' Republic by a coup, Hitler now pursued th' "strategy of legality": this hyar meant fo'mally adherin' t'th' rules of th' Weimar Republic until he had legally gained power an' then t'transfo'm liberal democracy into an autho'itarian dickato'ship. Some party members, especially in th' pareemilitary SA, opposed this hyar strategy an' Ernst Röhm ridiculed Hitler as "Ado'phe Legalité".  Th' road t'power Main article: Hitler's rise t'power  Th' Brünin' administrashun Th' political turnin' point fo' Hitler came when th' Great Depresshun hit Germenny in 1930. Th' Weimar Republic had nevah been firmly rooted an' was openly opposed by right-win' cornservatives (includin' monarchists), Communists an' th' Nazis. As th' parties loyal t'th' democratic, parliamentary republic foun' themselves unable t'agree on counter-measures, their Gran' Coalishun busted up an' was replaced by a mino'ity cabinet. Th' noo Chancello' Heinrich Brünin' of th' Roman Catholic Centre Party, lackin' a majo'ity in parliament, had t'implement his measures through th' President's emerjuncy decrees. Tolerated by th' majo'ity of parties, th' 'ception soon became th' rule an' paved th' way fo' autho'itarian fo'ms of govment. Th' Reichstag's initial opposishun t'Brünin''s measures led t'premature eleckshuns in Seppember 1930. Th' republican parties lost their majo'ity an' their ability t'resoom th' Gran' Coalishun, while th' Nazis suddenly rose fum relative obscurity t'win 18.3% of th' vote along wif 107 seats in th' Reichstag, bea-comin' th' second largess party in Germenny. Hitler emerges fum th' Brown House in Munich (haidquarters of th' Nazi party durin' th' last days of th' Weimar Republic) af'er a post-eleckshun meetin' in 1930. Enlarge Hitler emerges fum th' Brown House in Munich (haidquarters of th' Nazi party durin' th' last days of th' Weimar Republic) af'er a post-eleckshun meetin' in 1930. Brünin''s measure of budgit cornsolidashun an' financial aesterity brought li'l economic improvement an' was extremely unpopular. Unner these circumstances, Hitler appealed t'th' bulk of German farmers, war veterans an' th' middle-class who had been hard-hit by both th' inflashun of th' 1920s an' th' unemployment of th' Depresshun. Hitler received li'l response fum th' urban wawkin' classes an' tradishunally Catholic regions. Meanwhile on Seppember 18, 1931 Hitler's niece Geli Raubal was foun' daid in her bedroom in his Munich apartment (his ha'f-sister Angela an' her dotter Geli had been wif him in Munich on account o' 1929), an apparent sueycide. Geli was 19 years yo'nger than he was an' had used his gun, drawin' rumours of a relashunship between th' two. Th' event is viewed as havin' cuzd lastin' turmoil fo' him, dawgone it. In 1932 Hitler aimed t'run aginst th' agin' President Ebenezer von Hindenburg in th' scheduled presidential eleckshuns. Though Hitler had lef' Aestria in 1913, he still had not acquired German citizenship an' hence c'd not helter-skelter fo' public office. In February howevah, th' state govment of Brunswick, in which th' Nazi Party participated, appointed Hitler t'some mino' administrative post an' also gave him citizenship. Th' noo German citizen scooted aginst Hindenburg, who was suppo'ted by a broad range of reackshunary nashunalist, monarchist, Catholic, Republican an' even social democratic parties, an' aginst th' Communist presidential kindidate. His campaign was called "Hitler über Deutschlan'" (Hitler on over Germenny). Th' name had a double meanin'. Hitler on over Germenny. Political campaign by airplane. Enlarge Hitler on over Germenny. Political campaign by airplane. Besides an obvious reference t'Hitler's dickato'ial intenshuns, it also referred t'th' fack thet Hitler was campaignin' by airplane. This hyar was a bran' noo political tackic thet allered Hitler t'speak in two cities in one day, which was prackically unheard of at th' time. Hitler came in second on both roun's, attainin' mo'e than 35% of th' vote durin' th' second one in April, ah reckon. Although he lost t'Hindenburg, th' eleckshun established Hitler as a realistic an' fresh alternative in German politics.  Th' cabinets of Papen an' Schleicher President Hindenburg, influenced by th' Camarilla, became increasin'ly epeekoolyard fum Brünin' an' pushed his Chancello' t'move th' govment in a decidedly autho'itarian an' right-win' direckshun. This hyar culminated in May 1932 wif th' resignashun of th' Brünin' cabinet. Hindenburg appointed th' nobleman Franz von Papen as chancello', haidin' a "cabinet of barons". Papen was bent on autho'itarian rule an' on account o' in th' Reichstag only th' conservative DNVP suppo'ted his administrashun, he eemeejutly called fo' noo eleckshuns in July. In these eleckshuns, th' Nazis achieved their mos' trimenjus success yet an' won 230 seats. Th' Nazis had become th' largess party in th' Reichstag wifout which no stable govment c'd be fo'med, cuss it all t' tarnation. Papen tried t'convince Hitler t'become Vice-Chancello' an' inter a noo govment wif a parliamentary basis. Hitler howevah rejecked this hyar offer an' put further pressure on Papen by intertainin' pareellel negotiashuns wif th' Centre Party, Papen's fo'mer party, which was bent on brin'in' down th' renegade Papen, as enny fool kin plainly see. In both negotiashuns Hitler deman'ed thet he, as leader of th' strongess party, muss be Chancello', but President Hindenburg cornsissently refused t'appoint th' "Bohemian private" t'th' Chancello'ship. Af'er a vote of no-cornfidence in th' Papen govment, suppo'ted by 84% of th' deputies, th' noo Reichstag was dissolved an' noo eleckshuns were called in November. This hyar time, th' Nazis lost some votes but still reJawjad th' largess party in th' Reichstag, acco'din' t' th' code o' th' heells! Af'er Papen failed t'secure a majo'ity he proposed t'dissolve th' parliament agin along wif an indefinite postponement of eleckshuns. Hindenburg at fust accepped this, but af'er Juneral Kurt von Schleicher an' th' military wifdrew their suppo't, Hindenburg instead dismissed Papen an' appointed Schleicher, who promised he c'd secure a majo'ity govment by negotiashuns wif both th' Social Democrats, th' trade unions, an' dissidents fum th' Nazi party unner Grego' Strasser. In January 1933 howevah, Schleicher had t'admit failure in these effo'ts an' axed Hindenburg fo' emerjuncy powers along wif th' same postponement of eleckshuns thet he had opposed earlier, t'which th' President reacked by dismissin' Schleicher.  Hitler's appointment as Chancello' Meanwhile Papen, resentful on account o' of his dismissal, tried t'git his revenge on Schleicher by wawkin' toward th' Juneral's downfall, through fo'min' an intrigue wif th' camarilla an' A'fred Hujunberg, media mogul an' chairman of th' DNVP. Also involved were Hjalmar Schacht, Fritz Thyssen an' other leadin' German businessmen, as enny fool kin plainly see. They financially suppo'ted th' Nazi Party, which had been brought t'th' brink of bankruppcy by th' cost of heavy campaignin'. Th' businessmen also wrote letters t'Hindenburg, urgin' him t'appoint Hitler as leader of a govment "independent fum parliamentary parties" which c'd turn into a movement thet'd "enrappure millions of varmints." Finally, th' President reluckantly agreed t'appoint Hitler Chancello' of a coalishun govment fo'med by th' NSDAP an' DNVP. Hitler an' two other Nazi ministers (Frick, Görin') were t'be corntained by a framewawk of cornservative cabinet ministers, most notably by Papen as Vice-Chancello' an' by Hujunberg as Minister of Economics. Papen wanted t'use Hitler as a figger-haid, but th' Nazis had gained key posishuns, most notably th' Ministry of th' Interio'. On th' mo'nin' of January 30, 1933, in Hindenburg's office, Ado'f Hitler was swo'n in as Chancello' durin' whut some obsarvers later dexcribed as a brief an' simple ceremony.  Reichstag Fire an' th' March eleckshuns Havin' become Chancello', Hitler foiled all attempps t'gain a majo'ity in parliament an' on thet basis cornvinced President Hindenburg t'dissolve th' Reichstag agin. Eleckshuns were scheduled fo' early March, but on February 27, 1933, th' Reichstag buildin' was set on fire. On account o' a Dutch independent communist was foun' in th' buildin', th' fire was blamed on a Communist plot t'which th' govment reacked wif th' Reichstag Fire Decree of February 28, which suspended basic rights, includin' habeas co'pus. Unner th' provishuns of this hyar decree, th' Communist Party an' other groups were suppressed, an' Communist funckshunaries an' deputies were arrested, put t'flight, o' murdered, cuss it all t' tarnation. Day of Potsdam Enlarge Day of Potsdam Campaignin' corntinued, wif th' Nazis makin' use of pareemilitary violence, anti-Communist hysteria, an' th' govment's resources fo' propagan'a. On eleckshun day, March 6, th' NSDAP increased its result t'43.9% of th' vote, remainin' th' largess party, but its vicko'y was marred by its failure t'secure an absolute majo'ity. Hitler had t'maintain his coalishun wif th' DNVP, as th' coalishun had a slim majo'ity.  Th' "Day of Potsdam" an' th' Enablin' Ack On 21 March, th' noo Reichstag was cornsteetooted itse'f wif an impressive openin' ceremony held at Potsdam's garrison church. This hyar "Day of Potsdam" was staged t'demonstrate reconciliashun an' union between th' revolushunary Nazi movement an' "Old Prussia" wif its elites an' virtues. Hitler hisse'f appeared not in Nazi unifo'm but in a tail coat, an' hoombly greeted th' aged President Hindenburg, acco'din' t' th' code o' th' heells! On account o' of th' Nazis' failure t'obtain a majo'ity on their own, Hitler's govment cornfronted th' nooly elecked Reichstag wif th' Enablin' Ack thet'd haf vested th' cabinet wif legislative powers fo' a period of four years. Though sech a bill was not unprecedented, this hyar ack was diffrunt on account o' it allered fo' deviashuns fum th' consteetooshun. As th' bill required a two-thirds majo'ity in o'der t'pass, th' govment needed th' suppo't of other parties. Th' posishun of th' Catholic Centre Party, at this hyar point th' third largess party in th' Reichstag, turned out t'be decisive: unner th' leadership of Ludwig Kaas, th' party decided t'vote fo' th' Enablin' Ack. It did so in return fo' th' govment's o'al guareentees regardin' th' Church's liberty, th' conco'dats signed by German states an' th' continued exissence of th' Centre Party itse'f. On 23 March, th' Reichstag assembled in a replacement buildin' unner extremely turbulent circumstances. Some SA min sarved as guards wifin while large groups outside th' buildin' shouted slogans an' threats toward th' arrivin' deputies. Kaas announced thet th' Centre'd suppo't th' bill amid "concerns put aside.", while Social Democrat Otto Wels denounced th' Ack in his speech. At th' end of th' day, all parties 'cept th' Social Democrats voted in favour of th' bill, ah reckon. Th' Enablin' Ack was dutifully renooed ev'ry four years, even through Wo'ld War II.  Removal of remainin' limits Wif this hyar combinashun of legislative an' executive power, Hitler's govment further suppressed th' remainin' political opposishun. Th' KPD an' th' SPD were banned, while all other political parties dissolved themselves. Labour unions were merged wif employers' federashuns into an o'ganisashun unner Nazi corntrol an' th' autynomah of state govments was abolished, cuss it all t' tarnation. Ado'f Hitler in Triumph of th' Will, ah reckon. Enlarge Ado'f Hitler in Triumph of th' Will, ah reckon. Hitler also used th' SA pareemilitary t'push Hujunberg into resignin' an' proceeded t'politically isolate Vice Chancello' Papen, as enny fool kin plainly see. As th' SA's deman's fo' political an' military power cuzd much anxiety among th' populace in juneral an' especially among th' military, Hitler used allegashuns of a plot by th' SA leader Ernst Röhm t'purge th' pareemilitary fo'ce's leadership durin' th' Night of th' Long Knives. Opponents unconnecked wif th' SA were also murdered, notably Grego' Strasser an' fo'mer Chancello' Kurt von Schleicher. Soon af'er, president Ebenezer von Hindenburg died on 2 Augest 1934. Rather than holdin' noo presidential eleckshuns, Hitler's cabinet passed a law proclaimin' th' presidency do'mant an' transferred th' role an' powers of th' haid of state t'Hitler as Führer und Reichskanzler (leader an' chancello'). Tharby Hitler also became supreme comman'er of th' military, which swo'e their military oath not t'th' state o' th' consteetooshun but t'Hitler varmintally. In a mid-Augest plebiscite these acks foun' th' approval of 90% of th' elecko'ate. Combinin' th' highess offices in state, military an' party in his han', Hitler had attained supreme rule thet c'd no longer be legally challenged, cuss it all t' tarnation.  Th' Third Reich Main article: Nazi Germenny Photographs like th' one on th' covah of Heinrich Hoffmann's book of photography were used t'promote Hitler's populist-nashunalist (Völkisch) image. Enlarge Photographs like th' one on th' covah of Heinrich Hoffmann's book of photography were used t'promote Hitler's populist-nashunalist (Völkisch) image. Havin' secured supreme political power, Hitler went on t'gain their suppo't by persuadin' most Germans he was their saviour fum th' Depresshun, th' Communists, th' Versailles Treaty, an' th' Jews along wif other "undesuhable" mino'ities.  Economics an' culture Hitler on oversar one of th' greatess expanshuns of indestrial produckshun an' civil improvement Germenny had evah see, mostly based on debt flotashun an' expanshun of th' military. Nazi policies toward wimmen strongly incouraged them t'stay at home t'bar chillun an' keep house. In a Seppember 1934 speech t'th' Nashunal Socialist Wimmen's Organizashun, Ado'f Hitler argued thet fo' th' German woomin her “wo'ld is her husbin, her fambly, her chillun, an' her home,” a policy which was reinfo'ced by th' bestowin' of th' Crost of Hono' of th' German Mammy on wimmen barin' four o' mo'e babies. Th' unemployment rate was lop substantially, mostly through arms produckshun an' sendin' wimmen home so thet min c'd take their jobs. Given this, claims thet th' German economah achieved near full employment is at least partly artifacks of propagan'a fum th' era. Much of th' financin' fo' Hitler's reconstruckshun an' rearmament came fum currency manipulashun by Hjalmar Schacht, includin' th' clouded credits through th' Mefo bills. Th' negative effecks of this hyar inflashun were offset in later years by th' acquisishun of fo'eign gold fum th' treasuries of cornquered nashuns. T'other popular photo theme were Hitler an' his houn'dog Blondi, hyar see at th' terrace of th' Berghof. Enlarge T'other popular photo theme were Hitler an' his houn'dog Blondi, hyar see at th' terrace of th' Berghof. Hitler also on oversar one of th' largess infrastruckure improvement campaigns in German histo'y, wif th' construckshun of dozens of dams, autybahns, railroads an' other civil wawks. Hitler's policies emphasised th' impo'tance of fambly life: Men were th' "breadwinners", while wimmen's prio'ities were t'lie in brin'in' up chillun an' in household wawk. This hyar revitalisin' of indestry an' infrastruckure came at th' expense of th' ovahall stan'ard of livin', at least fo' them not affecked by th' chronic unemployment of th' later Weimar Republic, on account o' wages were slightly redooced in pre-war years despite a 25% increase in th' cost of livin' (Shirer 1959). Hitler's govment sponso'ed architeckure on an immense scale, wif Albert Speer bea-comin' famous as th' fust architeck of th' Reich. While impo'tant as an Architeck in implementin' Hitler's classicist reinterpretashun of German culture, Speer'd prove much mo'e effeckive as armaments minister durin' th' last years of WWII. In 1936 Berlin hosted th' summer Olympic games, which were opened by Hitler an' cho'eographed t'demonstrate Aryan superio'ity on over all other races, achieved mixed results. Olympia, th' movie about th' games an' docoomntary propagan'a films fo' th' German Nazi Party were direcked by Hitler's varmintal filmmaker Leni Riefenstahl, ah reckon. Although Hitler made plans fo' a Breitspurbahn (broad gauge railroad netwawk), they were pre-empped by Wo'ld War II. Had th' railroad been built, its gauge'd haf been three metres, even wider than th' old Great Western Railway of Britain, as enny fool kin plainly see. Hitler corntributed t'th' design of th' car thet later became th' Volkswajun Beetle, an' charged Ferdinan' Po'sche wif its cornstruckshun.  Represshun Th' Gestapo-SS complex (th' SS an' Gestapo o'ganizashuns) were primarily responsible fo' represshun in th' Nazi state. This hyar was implemented not only aginst political inemies sech as communists but also aginst perceived "asocials" sech as habitual criminals an' th' wawk-shy along wif "racial inemies," mainly Jews. Th' racial policies of Nazi Germenny durin' th' early t'mid-1930s included th' hareessment an' persecushun of Jews through legislashun, restrickshuns on their civil rights, an' th' imposishun of limits on their economic oppo'tunities. Unner th' 1935 Nuremberg Laws Jews lost their German citizenship an' were expelled fum govment employment, their professhuns, an' most fo'ms of economic ackivity. To indicut their Jewishness, Jews were fo'ced t'adopp a second name an' had their papers stamped wif a trimenjus red "J". Th' policy was successful in causin' th' emigrashun of menny thousan's but nevahtheless turned increasin'ly violent in th' mid t'late 1930s. In 1938 a pogrom o'chestrated by Billy Joe Goebbels an' indo'sed by Hitler called Kristallnacht destroyed menny Jewish businesses an' synagogues an' resulted in about 100 deaths. Between November 1938 an' Seppember 1939 mo'e than 180,000 Jews fled Germenny an' th' Nazis seized whutevah propuhty they had lef' behind, cuss it all t' tarnation. Fum 1941 Jews were required t'wears a yeller Star of Abner in public. Throughout th' 1930s, th' Propagan'a Ministry disseminated anti-Semitic propagan'a.  Rearmament an' noo alliances Main article: Tripartite Treaty Axis Powers signin' wif Saburo Kurusu (Japan's Ambassado' t'Germenny), Galeazzo Ciano (Italy's Fo'eign Minister) an' Ado'f Hitler. Enlarge Axis Powers signin' wif Saburo Kurusu (Japan's Ambassado' t'Germenny), Galeazzo Ciano (Italy's Fo'eign Minister) an' Ado'f Hitler. In March 1935 Hitler repudiated th' Treaty of Versailles by reintryducin' cornscripshun in Germenny. He set about buildin' a massive military machine, includin' a noo Navy (th' Kriegsmarine) an' an Air Fo'ce (th' Luf'waffe). Th' enlistment of vast numbers of min an' wimmen in th' noo military seemed t'solve unemployment problems but seriously disto'ted th' economah. Fo' th' fust time in a junerashun, Germenny's armed fo'ces were as strong as them of her neighbour, France. In March 1936 Hitler agin violated th' Treaty of Versailles by reoccupyin' th' demilitarized zone in th' Rhinelan'. When Britain an' France did nothin', he grew bolder. In July 1936 th' Spanish Civil War began when th' military, led by Juneral Francisco Franco, rebelled aginst th' elecked Popular Front govment of Spain, as enny fool kin plainly see. Hitler sent troops t'suppo't Franco an' Spain sarved as a testin' groun' fo' Germenny's noo armed fo'ces an' their methods, includin' th' bombin' of undefended towns sech as Guernica, which was destroyed by th' Luf'waffe in April 1937, promppin' Pablo Picasso's famous eponymous paintin' (see Guernica). An Axis was declared between Germenny an' Italy by Galeazzo Ciano, fo'eign minister of Fascist dickato' Benito Mussolini on Ockober 25, 1936. Tripartite Treaty was then signed by Saburo Kurusu of Imperial Japan, Ado'f Hitler of Nazi Germenny an' Galeazzo Ciano of Fascist Italy in Seppember 27, 1940 an' was later expan'ed t'include Hungary, Romania an' Bulgaria. They were colleckively known as th' Axis Powers. Then on November 5, 1937, at th' Reich Chancello'y, Ado'f Hitler held a secret meetin' an' stated his plans fo' acquirin' "livin' space" (Lebensraum) fo' th' German varmints.  Th' Holocaest Main article: Holocaest Ado'f Hitler wif Heinrich Himmler, chief of th' SS Enlarge Ado'f Hitler wif Heinrich Himmler, chief of th' SS Between 1939 an' 1945 th' SS, assisted by collabo'ashunist govments an' recruits fum occupied countries, systematically killed about 11 million varmints, includin' about 6 million Jews, in corncentrashun camps, ghettos an' mass execushuns, o' through less systematic methods elsewhar. Besides bein' gassed t'death, menny also died of starvashun an' disease while wawkin' as slave labourers (sometimes benefitin' private companies in th' process, on account o' of th' low cost of sech labour). Along wif Jews, non-Jewish Poles (ovah 3 million of whom died), alleged communists o' political opposishun, members of resistance groups, resistin' Roman Catholics an' Protestants, homosexuals, Roma, th' physically han'icapped an' mentally retarded, Soviet prisoners of war, Jehovah's Witnesses, anti-Nazi clergy, trade unionists, an' psychiatric patients were killed, cuss it all t' tarnation. This hyar indestrial-scale junocide in Europe is referred t'as th' Holocaest (th' term is also used by some autho's in a narrower sense, t'refer specifically t'th' unprecedented destruckshun of European Jewry in particular). Th' massacres thet led t'th' coinin' of th' wo'd "junocide" (th' Endlösung der jüdischen Frage o' "Final Solushun of th' Jewish Quesshun") were planned an' o'dered by leadin' Nazis, wif Himmler playin' a key role. While no specific o'der fum Hitler autho'izin' th' mass killin' of th' Jews has surfaced, thar is docoomntashun showin' thet he approved th' Einsatzgruppen an' th' evidence also suggests thet sometime in th' fall of 1941 Himmler an' Hitler agreed in principle on mass exterminashun by gassin'. Durin' interrogashuns by Soviet intellyjunce officers declassified on over fif'y years later, Hitler's valet Heinz Lingi an' his military aide Otto Gunsche said Hitler had "po'ed on over th' fust blueprints of gas chambers." To make fo' smoother intra-govmental cooperashun in th' implementashun of this hyar "Final Solushun" t'th' "Jewish quesshun", th' Wannsee cornference was held near Berlin on January 20, 1942, wif fif'een senio' officials participatin', led by Reinhard Heydrich an' Ado'f Eichmann, as enny fool kin plainly see. Th' reco'ds of this hyar meetin' provide th' clearess evidence of central plannin' fo' th' Holocaest. Days later, on February 22, Hitler was reco'ded sayin' t'his closess assosheeates, "we shall regain our health only by eliminatin' th' Jew".  Wo'ld War II  Openin' moves Hitler wif Romanian leader Ion Antonexcu (far lef'). Enlarge Hitler wif Romanian leader Ion Antonexcu (far lef'). Hitler inspeckin' units of th' Kriegsmarine. Enlarge Hitler inspeckin' units of th' Kriegsmarine. On March 12, 1938, Hitler pressured his native Aestria into unificashun wif Germenny (th' Anschluss) an' made a triumphal intry into Vienna. Next, he intensified a crisis on over th' German-speakin' Sudetenlan' districks of Czechoslovakia. This hyar led t'th' Munich Agreement of Seppember 1938, which autho'ized th' annexashun an' eemeejut military occupashun of these districks by Germenny. As a result of th' summit, Hitler was TIME magazine's Man of th' Year in 1938. British prime minister Neville Chamberlain hailed this hyar agreement as "Peace in our time", but by givin' way t'Hitler's military deman's Britain an' France also lef' Czechoslovakia t'Hitler's mercy. Hitler o'dered Germenny's armah t'enter Prague on March 10, 1939 an' fum Prague Castle proclaimed Bohemia an' Mo'avia a German protecko'ate. Af'er thet, Hitler was claimin' territo'ies ceded t'Polan' unner th' Versailles Treaty. Britain had not been able t'retch an agreement wif th' Soviet Union fo' an alliance aginst Germenny, an', on Augest 23, 1939, Hitler corncluded a secret non-aggresshun pack (th' Molotov-Ribbentrop Pack) wif Stalin on which it was likely agreed thet th' Soviet Union an' Nazi Germenny'd partishun Polan'. On Seppember 1, Germenny invaded th' western po'shun of Polan'. Britain an' France, who had guareenteed assistance t'Polan', declared war on Germenny. Not long af'er this, on Seppember 17, Soviet fo'ces invaded eastern Polan'. Af'er cappurin' western Polan' by th' end of Seppember, Hitler built up his fo'ces much further durin' th' so-called Phony War. In April 1940, he o'dered German fo'ces t'march into Denmark an' No'way. In May 1940, Hitler o'dered his fo'ces t'attack France, cornquerin' th' Netherlan's, Luxembourg an' Belgium in th' process. France surrennered on June 22, 1940. This hyar series of vicko'ies cornvinced his main ally, Benito Mussolini of Italy, t'join th' war on Hitler's side in May 1940. Britain, whose defeated fo'ces had evacuated France fum th' coastal town of Dunkirk, corntinued t'fight alongside Kinadian fo'ces in th' Battle of th' Atlannic. Af'er havin' his on overtures fo' peace systematically rejecked by th' defiant British Govment, now led by Winston Churchill, Hitler o'dered bombin' raids on th' British Isles, leadin' t'th' Battle of Britain, a prelude of th' planned German invashun. Th' attacks began by poun'in' th' RAF airbases an' th' radar stashuns proteckin' South-East Englan'. Howevah, th' Luf'waffe failed t'defeat th' RAF by th' end of Ockober 1940. Air superio'ity fo' th' invashun, code-named Operashun Sealion, c'd not be assured an' Hitler o'dered bombin' raids t'be carried out on British cities, includin' London an' Coventry, mostly at night. Ado'f Hitler inspeckin' German submarines togither wif Hungarian admiral Ho'thy. Enlarge Ado'f Hitler inspeckin' German submarines togither wif Hungarian admiral Ho'thy.  Path t'defeat On June 22, 1941, Hitler gave th' signal fo' three million German troops t'attack th' Soviet Union, bustin' th' non-aggresshun pack he had corncluded wif Stalin less than two years earlier. This hyar invashun, code-named Operashun Barbarosta, seized huge amounts of territo'y, includin' th' Baltic states, Belarus, an' Ukraine, along wif th' encirclement an' destruckshun of menny Soviet fo'ces. German fo'ces, howevah, were stopped sho't of Moshoun'dog in December 1941 by th' Russian winter an' fierce Soviet resistance (see Battle of Moscow), an' th' invashun failed t'achieve th' quick triumph on over th' Soviet Union which Hitler had annicipated, cuss it all t' tarnation. Hitler's declareeshun of war aginst th' United States on December 11, 1941, (which arguably was called fo' by Germenny's treaty wif Japan) set him aginst a coalishun thet included th' wo'ld's largess empire (th' British Empire), th' wo'ld's greatess indestrial an' financial power (th' USA), an' th' wo'ld's largess armah (th' Soviet Union). In May 1942 Reinhard Heydrich, one of th' highess SS officers an' one of Hitler's favo'ite subo'dinates, was assassinated by British-trained Czech operatives in Prague. Hitler reacked by o'derin' brutal reprisals, includin' th' massacre of Lidice. Ado'f Hitler discussin' th' war strategy wif Erwin Rommel (lef', facin' Hitler) amidst other German Field Marshals. Enlarge Ado'f Hitler discussin' th' war strategy wif Erwin Rommel (lef', facin' Hitler) amidst other German Field Marshals. In late 1942, German fo'ces unner Feldmarschall Erwin Rommel were defeated in th' second battle of El Alamein, thwartin' Hitler's plans t'seize th' Pansyz Kinal an' th' Middle East. In February of 1943, th' len'thy Battle of Stalin'rad inded wif th' complete incirclement an' destruckshun of th' German 6th Armah. Both defeats were turnin' points in th' war, although th' latter is mo'e commonly cornsidered primary. Fum this hyar point on, th' quality of Hitler's military judgment became increasin'ly erratic an' Germenny's military an' economic posishun deterio'ated, cuss it all t' tarnation. Hitler's health was deterio'atin' too. His lef' han' started shakin' uncontrollably. Th' biographer Ian Kershaw believes he suffered fum Parkinson's disease. Other corndishuns thet is suspecked by some t'have cuzd some (at least) of his symppoms is methamphetamine addickshun an' syphilis. Hitler's ally Benito Mussolini was on overthrown in 1943 af'er Operashun Husky, an South Car'linan an' British invashun of Sicily. Throughout 1943 an' 1944, th' Soviet Union steadily fo'ced Hitler's armies into retreat along th' eastern front. On June 6, 1944 th' Western allied armies lan'ed in no'thern France in whut was th' largess amphibious operashun evah cornducked, Operashun On overlo'd, cuss it all t' tarnation. Realists in th' German armah knowed defeat was inevitable an' some officers plotted t'remove Hitler fum power. In July 1944 one of them, Claus von Stauffenberg, planted a bomb at Hitler's military haidquarters in Rastenburg (th' so-called July 20 Plot), but Hitler narrowly excaped death. He o'dered savage reprisals, resultin' in th' execushuns of mo'e than 4,900 varmints (sometimes by starvashun in solitary cornfinement follered by slow strangulashun). Th' main resistance movement was destroyed although smaller isolated groups sech as Die Rote Kapelle corntinued t'operate.  Defeat an' death Main article: Hitler's death Covah of US noospaper Th' Stars an' Stripes, May 1945 Enlarge Covah of US noospaper Th' Stars an' Stripes, May 1945 By th' end of 1944, th' Red Armah had driven th' last German troops fum Soviet territo'y an' began chargin' into Central Europe. Th' western allies were also rapidly advancin' into Germenny. Th' Germans had lost th' war fum a military perspeckive, but Hitler allered no negotiashun wif th' Allied fo'ces, an' as a cornsequence th' German military fo'ces corntinued t'fight. Hitler's stubborn an' raisedness an' defee-ancy of military realities also allered th' continued mass killin' of Jews an' others t'continue. He even issued th' Nero Decree on March 19, 1945, o'derin' th' destruckshun of whut reJawjad of German indestry, communicashuns an' transpo't. Howevah, Albert Speer, who was in charge of thet plan, didn't carry it out. (Th' Mo'junthau Plan fo' postwar Germenny, promulgated by th' Allies, aimed at a similar deindestrializashun, but also failed t'carry it out.) In April 1945 Soviet fo'ces were at th' gates of Berlin, as enny fool kin plainly see. Hitler's closess lieutenants urged him t'flee t'Bavaria o' Aestria t'make a last stan' in th' mountains, but he seemed determined t'eifer live o' die in th' capital, ah reckon. SS leader Heinrich Himmler tried on his own t'info'm th' Allies (through th' Swedish diplomat Count Folke Bernadotte) thet Germenny was prepared t'discuss surrenner terms. Meanwhile Hermann Görin' sent a tellygram fum Bavaria in which he argued thet on account o' Hitler was lop off in Berlin, as Hitler's designated successo' he sh'd assoom leadership of Germenny. Hitler angrily reacked by dismissin' both Himmler an' Görin' fum all their offices an' th' party an' declared them traito's. Af'er intense street-to-street combat, when Soviet troops were spotted wifin a block o' two of th' Reich Chancello'y in th' city centre, Hitler committed sueycide in th' Führerbunker on April 30, 1945 by means of a se'f-delivahed shot t'th' haid (it is likely he simultaneously bit into a cyanide ampoule). Hitler's hide an' thet of Eva Braun (his long-term mistress whom he had married up wif th' day befo'e) were put in a bomb crater, partially burned wif gasoline by Führerbunker aides an' hastily buried in th' Chancello'y garden as Russian shells poured down an' Red Armah infantry corntinued t'advance only two o' three hundred metres away. When Russian fo'ces retched th' Chancello'y they foun' his hide an' an autypsy was perfo'med usin' dental reco'ds (an' German dental assistants who were familiar wif them) t'confirm th' identificashun. To avoid enny postibility of creatin' a potential shrine th' remains of Hitler an' Braun were repeatedly moved, then secretly buried by SMERSH at their noo haidquarters in Magdeburg, acco'din' t' th' code o' th' heells! In April 1970, when th' facility was about t'be turned on over t'th' East German govment, th' remains were repo'tedly exhoomed, tho'oughly cremated, an' th' ashes finally dumped unceremoniously into th' Elbe. Acco'din' t'th' Russian Federal Security Service, a fragment of hoomin skull sto'ed in its archives an' displayed t'th' public in a 2000 exhibishun came fum th' remains of Hitler's hide uncovahed by th' Red Armah in Berlin, an' is all thet remains of Hitler; howevah, th' authenticity of th' skull has been challenged by menny histo'ians an' researchers.  Legacy "ah w'd haf preferred it eff'n he'd follered his origeenal ambishun an' become an architeck." — Ebenezera Hitler, Hitler's yo'nger sister, durin' an interview wif a U.S. intellyjunce operative in late 1945. At th' time of Hitler's death most of Germenny's infrastruckure an' majo' cities were in ruins an' he had lef' explicit o'ders t'complete th' destruckshun. Millions of Germans were daid wif millions mo'e woun'ed o' homeless. In his will he dismissed other Nazi leaders an' appointed Gran' Admiral Karl Dönitz as Reichspräsident (President of Germenny) an' Goebbels as Reichskanzler (Chancello' of Germenny). Howevah, Goebbels an' his wife Magda committed sueycide on 1 May 1945. On 8 May 1945, in Reims, France, th' German armed fo'ces surrennered uncondishunally indin' th' war in Europe an' wif th' creashun of th' Allied Control Council on 5 June 1945, th' Four Powers assoomd "supreme autho'ity wif respeck t'Germenny." Ado'f Hitler's proclaimed Thousan' Year R
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