Axis of evil
The term "Axis of evil" was used by United States President George W. Bush in his State of the Union Address on January 29, 2002 to describe regimes that purportedly sponsor terrorism and seek weapons of mass destruction. Bush named Iraq, Iran, and North Korea in his speech.
* 1 The phrase
* 2 Origins of the phrase
* 3 "Beyond the Axis of Evil"
* 4 Criticism of the term
* 5 Other uses
* 6 See also
* 7 External links
 The phrase
The phrase is derived from that of the rogue state, but the term itself is reminiscent of the Axis Powers of World War II and of President Ronald Reagan's evil empire designation for the Soviet Union.
Bush's exact statement was as follows:
[Our goal] is to prevent regimes that sponsor terror from threatening America or our friends and allies with weapons of mass destruction. Some of these regimes have been pretty quiet since September the 11th. But we know their true nature. North Korea is a regime arming with missiles and weapons of mass destruction, while starving its citizens.
Iran aggressively pursues these weapons and exports terror, while an unelected few repress the Irainian people's hope for freedom.
Iraq continues to flaunt its hostility toward America and to support terror. The Iraqi regime has plotted to develop anthrax, and nerve gas, and nuclear weapons for over a decade. This is a regime that has already used poison gas to murder thousands of its own citizens—leaving the bodies of mothers huddled over their dead children. This is a regime that agreed to international inspections—then kicked out the inspectors. This is a regime that has something to hide from the civilized world.
States like these, and their terrorist allies, constitute an axis of evil, arming to threaten the peace of the world. By seeking weapons of mass destruction, these regimes pose a grave and growing danger. They could provide these arms to terrorists, giving them the means to match their hatred. They could attack our allies or attempt to blackmail the United States. In any of these cases, the price of indifference would be catastrophic.
—George W. Bush, 2002 State of the Union Address
In 1994, the United States and North Korea had entered into the "Agreed Framework" to defuse the issue of the North Korean nuclear program. Neither party held to this agreement during the Clinton Administration, and most experts believe North Korea had acquired one or two nuclear weapons before Bush took office. The year after Bush's speech, North Korea withdrew from the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty. Later in 2003, several right-wing political strategists (the neoconservatives, led by Richard Perle) favored by the Bush Administration called for military strikes in North Korea against its nuclear sites.  In 2006, North Korea claimed to have tested a nuclear weapon. US and Russian tests appeared to confirm these claims.
 Origins of the phrase
Shortly after its utterance, the phrase was attributed to former Bush speechwriter David Frum, originally as the "axis of hatred" and then "evil". Frum explained his rationale for creating the phrase "axis of evil" in his book The Right Man: The Surprise Presidency of George W. Bush. Essentially, the story begins in late December 2001 when head speechwriter Mike Gerson gave Frum the assignment of articulating the case for dislodging the government of Saddam Hussein in Iraq in only a few sentences for the upcoming State of the Union address. Frum says he began by rereading President Franklin D. Roosevelt's "date that will live in infamy" speech given on December 8, 1941, after the Japanese surprise attack on Pearl Harbor. While Americans needed no convincing about going to war with Japan, Roosevelt saw the greater threat to the United States coming from Germany, and he had to make the case for fighting a two-ocean war.
Frum points to a now often-overlooked sentence in Roosevelt's speech which reads in part, "...we will not only defend ourselves to the uttermost but will make very certain that this form of treachery shall never endanger us again." Frum interprets Roosevelt's oratory like this: "For FDR, Pearl Harbor was not only an attack—it was a warning of future and worse attacks from another, even more dangerous enemy." Japan, a country with one-tenth of America's industrial capacity, a dependence on imports for all its food, and already engaged in a war with China, was extremely reckless to attack the United States, a recklessness "that made the Axis such a menace to world peace", Frum says. Saddam Hussein's two wars, against Iran and Kuwait, were just as reckless, Frum believed, and therefore presented the same threat to world peace.
The more he compared the Axis powers of World War II to modern "terror states", the more similarities he saw. "The Axis powers disliked and distrusted one another", Frum writes. "Had the Axis somehow won the war, its members would quickly have turned on one another." Iran, Iraq, al-Qaeda, and Hezbollah, despite quarrelling among themselves however, "all resented power of the West and Israel, and they all despised the humane values of democracy." There, Frum saw the connection: "Together, the terror states and the terror organizations formed an axis of hatred against the United States."
Frum sent off a memo with the above arguments and also cited some of the atrocities perpetrated by the Iraqi government. He expected his words to be chopped apart and altered beyond recognition, as is the fate of much presidential speechwriting, but his words were ultimately read by Bush nearly verbatim. His term "axis of hatred" had been changed to "axis of evil" to match the theological language used by Bush since the September 11, 2001 attacks. North Korea was added to the list, he says, because it was attempting to develop nuclear weapons, had a history of reckless aggression, and "needed to feel a stronger hand."
A decade before the 2002 State of the Union address, in August 1992, the neoconservative pundit Yossef Bodansky wrote a paper entitled "Tehran, Baghdad & Damascus: The New Axis Pact"  while serving as a staffer for a conservative House caucus. Although he did not explicitly apply the epithet "evil" to his New Axis, Bodansky's axis was otherwise very reminiscent of Frum's axis. Bodansky felt that this new Axis was a very dangerous development. The gist of Bodansky's argument was that Iran, Iraq and Syria had formed a "tripartite alliance" in the wake of Gulf War I, and that this alliance posed an imminent threat which could only be dealt with by invading Iraq a second time and overthrowing Saddam Hussein. (Exactly what the second President Bush did in 2003.) In a subsequent September 1992 paper, "Iran's European Springboard" , Bodansky argued that Iran and the other members of the New Axis were using the Muslim community in Bosnia and elsewhere in Yugoslavia "as a springboard for the launching of a jihad in Europe." (President Clinton did eventually intervene in the former Yugoslavia. However, Clinton intervened on the side of the Muslims, halting the Serbian ethnic cleansing, i.e., he did the opposite of what Bodansky advocated.)
 "Beyond the Axis of Evil"
John R. Bolton
John R. Bolton
On May 6, 2002 United States under Secretary of State John R. Bolton (now U.N. Ambassador by recess appointment) gave a speech entitled "Beyond the Axis of Evil." In it he added three more nations to be grouped with the already mentioned "rogue states": Libya, Syria, and Cuba. The criteria for membership in this group were: "state sponsors of terrorism that are pursuing or who have the potential to pursue weapons of mass destruction (WMD) or have the capability to do so in violation of their treaty obligations." The speech was widely reported as an expansion of the original Axis of Evil. The allegation of Cuban WMD capability was particularly strenuously denied by the Cuban government, and disputed by former President Jimmy Carter who visited the country a week later after being briefed by US officials.
In 2003 Libya began to make policy changes with the open intention of pursuing a Western-Libyan détente. The Libyan government announced its decision to abandon its weapons of mass destruction programmes and pay almost 3 billion US dollars in compensation to the families of Pan Am flight 103 as well as UTA flight 772.
Since 2003 the country has restored normal diplomatic ties with the European Union and the United States and has even coined the catchphrase, 'The Libya Model', an example intended to show the world what can be achieved through negotiation rather than force when there is goodwill on both sides.
In January 2005, at the beginning of Bush's second term as President, the incoming Secretary of State, Condoleezza Rice, made a speech regarding the newly termed "Outposts of tyranny," a list of six countries deemed most dangerous and anti-American. This included the two remaining "Axis" members, as well as Cuba, Belarus, Zimbabwe and Myanmar.
In January 2006, Israeli Defense Minister Shaul Mofaz implicated "the axis of terror that operates between Iran and Syria" following a suicide bomb in Tel Aviv.  The phrase axis of terror earned more publicity in April 2006 when Israel's UN Ambassador, Dan Gillerman, cautioned of a new "axis of terror" — Iran, Syria and the Hamas-run Palestinian government; Gillerman repeated the term before the UN over the crisis in Lebanon.  Some three months later Israeli senior foreign ministry official Gideon Meir branded the alleged alliance an "axis of terror and hate". 
 Criticism of the term
One criticism is that unlike the Axis powers, the three nations mentioned in Bush's speech have not been coordinating public policy, and therefore the term axis is incorrect. However, during North Korea's missiles tests on July 4, 2006, Iranian diplomats were present to witness the tests. Iran and Iraq fought the long, bloody Iran-Iraq War in the 1980s, under basically the same leadership as that which existed at the time of Bush's speech. Additionally, it is argued that each of the three have some special characteristics which are obscured by grouping them together. Anne Applebaum has written about the debate over North Korea's inclusion in the group.
Furthermore, other information Bush cited in his state of the union address — primarily dealing with Iraq and its alleged Weapons of mass destruction and terror ties — have been shown to be false, by Senate-appointed committee investigations. Moreover, the bulk of the arguments dealing with the axis of evil members have been shown to be dependent on factually flawed information.
 Other uses
The Economist, May 11, 2006
The Economist, May 11, 2006
By analogy to "axis of evil", the term "axis of the willing" has occasionally been applied to the "coalition of the willing" (for countries that participated in the 2003 invasion of Iraq).
The term has also lent itself to various parodies, including "axis of weasels" (mocking certain countries that did not support USA on Iraq issue), "Axis of Eve" (a political action group that opposes Bush), "axis of medieval" (mockingly criticizes the influence that Bush's personal Christian faith has on his political views), "asses of evil" (a mocking insult against Bush, Dick Cheney and Donald Rumsfeld), "axles of evil" (denouncing sport utility vehicles for their poor fuel efficiency), and several other variations. Serj Tankian, lead singer for the group System of a Down and Tom Morello, guitarist and former guitarist for Audioslave and Rage Against the Machine (respectively) founded a political action group called the "Axis of Justice." Andrew Marlatt wrote an extensive parody  for SatireWire, with the rule: "An axis can't have more than three countries." The term is now becoming so popular that the term Axis of Evil is now considered three people or things that are a menace or a nuisance. The Economist ran a 2006 (May 13-19) cover headline titled "Axis of Feeble" about the end of the George Bush-Tony Blair partnership. 
Hugo Chávez, President of Venezuela, has described "Washington and its allies" as an "axis of evil," in contrast to an "axis of good" comprising Venezuela, Cuba, and Bolivia (all three countries now governed by leftist leaders.) 
In Star Wars Labyrinth of Evil, in an apparent lampoon of the Bush administration, Supreme Chancellor Palpatine uses the term the "Triad of Evil" when referring to the planets Felucia, Mygeeto, and Saleucami.
The term axis was applied previously during the Clinton Administration In 1998 by conservative journalist Joseph Farah a critic of Clinton's political maneuvering..
 See also
* Great Satan
* Holidays in the Axis of Evil
* Outposts of tyranny
* Political usages of the term evil
* Rogue states
Wikisource has original text related to this article:
George W. Bush's Second State of the Union Address
 External links
* 2002 State of the Union Address - President George W. Bush - January 29, 2002
* "AXIS OF EVIL" - PBS Online NewsHour - January 30, 2002
* "US expands 'axis of evil'" - BBC News - Monday, 6 May 2002, 22:40 GMT 23:40 UK
* "How to defeat the Axis of Evil" - Salon.com - 24 October 2002
* "Is the Axis of Evil Synchronizing its Asymmetric Offensive?" - The Nautilus Institute for Security and Sustainable Development - December 20, 2002
* "Libya’s fatal blow to axis of evil" - Sunday Herald Online - 21 December 2003
* Angered by Snubbing, Libya, China, Syria Form Axis of Just as Evil -- a parody by Andrew Marlatt
* Axis of Evil Weather.com - Project that displays weather results for the axil of evil, showing a humanistic side of the Axis
* Axis of Evil Comedy Troupe, produced by the American-Arab Anti-Discrimination Committee .
* Lullabies from the Axis of Evil Recordings of folk tunes by women from the targeted nations, in a production by Erik Hillestad.
Re: Axis of evil
The only axis of evil is bushy boy and his elite scumbos bilderbergers and
rockefellers, and rothchilds. Many more to mention than I can at this time.
If some group could get rids of ALL the elite we may get our country back.
Until we get our country back we could have some very serious trouble with
our government. The real show is being run by this facist, racist, and hate
mongering, war mongers. They consider us to be their slaves and promote their agenda unto all of us peons. If we truly love this country, it needs to taken back by the People, for the people and the commonwealth of this country. These old presidents who took the money away and made this federal reserve should be beaten with large fish hooks and hung out over
pig pens. Such a Teddy Hoosvelt. and all of them since.
we need to do something about this or we will all be at the soup lines.
Re: Axis of evil
HAS ANYONE HEARD OF THE HAARP WEAPONS AND THE HYDRoN COLLIDER?
Rockefellers plan according to Nick Rock a feller is to get gas to $5.00 a gallon. depopulate the world 80%. THere are big plans in place for the
nation. Go to youtube videos and watch David Rockfeller on depopulation and
chipping of the american people. go to youtube about Aaron Russo and his
nice talk about 9-11 and what they think of all us cattle.
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