The Big Bangers, Sagan, Hawking et al, are idiots and stretcher case retards whose impetus is the dumbing down of mankind, who remain the scientific equivalent of politicians and journalists, blind to hard evidence that 911 was an inside job!
Look at this image of the Virgo cluster of galaxies, for images of galaxies extending as far as the eye can see, some appear to exist in a swarm around the sub cluster at the core, others are in streamers and wisps of galaxies extending outward, until their images are no more than pin points.
In the 1950's, when the spectra of deep field galaxies obtained by Edwin Hubble with the two hundred inch telescope on Mount Palomar, was subjected to scrutiny, it was found that the absorption lines of all the common elements were shifted toward the red end of the spectrum, this is called redshift, the furthest ones away, attested to by the small width of their image on the photographic plates, all had greater RS than their closer counterparts whose images subtended a greater angle.
When space based and adaptive optic instruments extended the visual limit even further, vastly more distant edge on spiral galaxies, recognized as a central bulge with two pointy bits extending about twice as far on the same axis, emerged in the same advanced stages of evolution as the MW. Here RS is approaching twelve, which puts the rate of recession well into the super luminal category, which means faster than the speed of light, yet they are goiní about their own business, the same as around here.
Expanding the images further for faint blobs of light, which are galaxies ever further away in every direction, and see them as neurons in the brain of God which is meant in no evangelical sense, it just seems the best way to describe it.
Redshift is an artifact of distance, the fact that M31, the relatively nearby Andromeda Galaxy has blue shift, is because it is gravitationally bound together with the other galaxies in the local group. M 31 and the Milky Way or home galaxy, will eventually expand to become elliptical galaxies, making a sub cluster typically seen in the middle of larger galaxy clusters, nearby NGC 5128, called Centarus A is presently undergoing that process.
Those who cackle on about the age of the universe expressed as a percentage of itís present age, say redshift indicates the universe is expanding after the explosion of a primal atom, that accordingly could only have been located right where good olí Earth is today, the Big Bang hypothesis.
A class of object called a BL Lacerta object has no redshift, and remains a pinpoint of light on even the deepest fields, is thought to be a tunnel shot of the energy beam from the active nucleus of a quasar, modern binocular, space based and image stabilized telescopes, have identified a rim of matter surrounding some of the BL Lacerta points of light, which does exhibit redshift, supporting that hypothesis.
Thus viewing a distant galaxy, with a redshift of eight, between here and there is another galaxy with a RS of four, indicating it was speeding toward the more distant place, thus from the more distant galaxy, our galaxy the Milky Way would similarly have a RS of eight, so too would the intervening galaxy viewed from the more distant place have a RS of four, indicating it was speeding toward us at a pretty good clip.
It can not be speeding in both directions at once can it now.. when confronted with that, the Big Bangers start on about balloons and expanding space, forget about balloons, Hubble was a dictator, and the only person other than him who was allowed to look thru the two hundred inch telescope, was a mule skinner named Milton Humason, Hubble and Milt cooked up the Expanding Universe theory between the two of them, which is just so much hot air.
Assume that most spiral galaxies that look the same are roughly the same size, as distance reduces the linear dimension constantly, so too does redshift increase in proportion, thus a spiral galaxy that is one degree across, will be twice as distant as another that is two degrees across, similarly one that is half of one degree wide will be twice as far as the first, and four times further than the other.
Blue shift is observable in the discs of rotating galaxies, thus the light from a distant galaxy will exhibit mean redshift in proportion to its linear distance, expanding the image further, as rotation brings parts toward us, they will be slightly blue shifted back toward the norm, similarly as rotation takes objects away, their light will be shifted so slightly even further toward the red part of the spectrum.