Please do elaborate on your statement;-
"no causality for anything outside of the orbit of the earth, which is obviously not the case".
It looked like you were trying to say that time only has a reference when in the vicinity of a rotating body. That is clearly not the case.
Clearly you skipped or missed the bit about the twin paradox (A Einstein's "twin paradox", it was in the wiki-pedia quote)...
That referred to time as it passes in a space ship / rocket!
Also I spoke of time in the nucleus of an atom...
To get at where your headed we really need to go back to proving or disproving the existence of the either of space, if we wish to understand "time" throughout the universe.
I would suggest that the either of space, while it acts as a incompressible liquid in its ability to propagate waves across inertial space - yet it is also a seething mass of varying energy density's, and that it is our passage thru this either whether we are on a planet orbiting a sun or in a spacer ship or just a piece of space junk drifting aimlessly in space thru that ether, that is our frame of reference for measuring the energy involved which we perceive as the passage of time.
Perhaps it would be instructive if you were to outline your theory of what exactly time is?
I wish to move beyond this explanation to my discovery of the relationship between mass and Time in energy terms.
Without grasping the basics thus far It seems as tho i might be effectively talking to myself - no disrespect intended.
Would it help you if I started with posts of Mitchellson Morley's and later Sagnacs linear and then rotational analogue light speed experiments - and we progressed thru Einsteins 21 equation proof for special relativity - then again i will show the fundamental error of Einsteins special relativity theorem (which was never peer reviewed by the way).
Its important that we get a grip on exactly what time is and thus far I seem to have lost you along the way.
We do need to realize that C the universal constant 'limit velocity of light in a vacuum" is NOT the much vaunted speed of light 3 x 10^8 meters per second - but s in fact infinity!
The so called speed of light, 186,000 miles per second or 3 x 10 6 8 meters per second is just light speed at warp 1!
I suggest that it is the OBSERVABLE light speed limit velocity in a vacuum - beca8se once it jumps to warp 2, its not observable by direct observation at our frame of reference traveling at less than warp 2.
Lets start with a little more from yourself, regards your statements this far!
I'm attempting to give here the necessary grounding for you to follow me to understanding the energy relationship between Time and Mass!
If you look in my signature you will see it referred to as M = Δ T
Mass equals Change in Time
There's as much potential energy 'trapped or compressed if you prefer' in The domain of Time as their is in Mass.
How much energy is in Mass?
Well - After the Manhatten project when the atom was split - we got nuclear energy - a whole fat boys worth at Nagasaki and Hiroshima and today we have nuke power stations worth all over the globe.
Atoms are the building blocks of mass - and the energy in mass is approx 9 x 10 ^ 16 Joules!
If I am correct as I believe and M = Δ T then - by decompressing or realizing the potential energy "trapped or compressed" in just one second of time - we have similar quanta of potential energy available to us! (9 x 10 ^ 16 Joules per second).
One way of doing this could be in spatial circuits.
I will show the working for M = Δ T in my next post - but we really do need to get a grip first on the fundamental of what is time - and the answer that Time is just a form of energy.