Re: What is TIME exactly?
“Einstein's Relativity Error
“The physical sciences in 1873 seemed to once again take on an air of stability as James Clerk Maxwell published his, 'Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism.'
In this paper, he discussed electricity, magnetism, and electromagnetism as functions of waves in a fluid space (ether). His theory held popular support until the year 1887 when the two U.S. physicists AA Michelson and Edward W Morley performed their historic experiment with light.
Their experiment (The MichelsonMorley experiment) was designed to use light as a means to determine if space were a 'fluid' as Maxwell's equations had assumed.
The MM test results, however, appeared to deny the existence of fluid (or ether) space. To explain the 'apparent' failure of the MM test to detect the ether, Hendrik Lorentz and George Fitzgerald developed their now famous 'transforms' (The LorentzFitzgerald Transforms  1902) in which length contractions, mass increase and time lag were offered as explanation for the negative test result. Note that the Lorentz  Fitzgerald transforms still treated space as an inertial fluid, one undetectable by known technology.
Einstein, who first began the formulation of his special theory of relativity in 1895, published it in 1905. He seized upon the Lorentz Fitzgerald transforms and the MM test results as evidence of a universal axiom: The velocity of light is (to the observer) the limit measurable velocity in the universe, (this does not mean it is the limit velocity in the universe however).
The discipline details
Einstein was faced with an apparent paradox, as to the nature of space. It behaved like a fluid in many ways  yet in others it behaved like an abstract, tencomponent Ricci Tensor from the Reimannian model of the Universe. The failure of the MM test to detect an ether was the final straw. Yet, hard as he tried, Einstein failed to remove the ether from E=MC^2.
The following discussion should illustrate this point.
Diagram One above is a schematic of the MM test. It was conducted on the basis that if an ether existed, the earth would be moving "through" it. Hence there would be a relative velocity between earth and the fluid of space.
It was reasoned that by splitting a beam of light (F) into two parts; sending one out and back in line with the direction of the earth's orbital path, (to mirror A) from Half silvered mirror (G) and glass plate (D); and recombining the two beams in the interferometer (E) one should be able to detect a shift in the phases of the two beams relative to one another.
This shift could accurately be predicted by knowing the velocity of light (c)
And the velocity (Ve) of Earth through orbital space. Their reasoning was as follows (refer diag. 1, diag. 2a, daig, 2b):
Assuming:
c2 = a2 + b2C = velocity of light = velocity from G to B by fixed extraterrestrial observer
S = distance GA = GB
T1 = goreturn time inline (GA  AG)
T2 = go return time at right angles (GBBG)
T = .5 t T2
V1= apparent velocity from g to B by earth observer.
Then the time (T1) is determined by:[s/(cve)] + [s/(c+ve))] = t1 which reduces to:
(Eq.1) 2sc/(c2  ve2) = t1
Also, the time (t2) is determined by first solving for (v1) in terms of ( c ) and (Ve) using the Pythagorean Theorem (c2 = a2 + b2)…. Or, in this instance: (G to B)2 = (G to M)2 + (M to B)2
By substitution, c2 = ve2 + v12
Hence:
(Eq.2) v1= (c2  ve2).5
Now, solving for the time (t)  which is the same over GM, GB, MB  of the GB trip by substituting s/t = v1 in (Eq.2) , one obtains:
(Eq.3) s/t = (c2  ve2).5
rearranging:
(Eq.3) t = s/(c2  ve2).5
Substituting: t = .5t2
Gives: t2/2=s/(c2  ve2).5
Or:
(Eq.4) t2= 2s /(c2  ve2).5
by comparing the ratio of the inline goreturn time (t1) to the right angle goreturn time (t2) one obtains:
(Eq.5) t1/t2 =[2sc / (c2  ve2).5 / 2s
which reduces to:
(Eq. 5.) t1/t2 = (1 ve2 / c2 )  .5
Now then, if the light source is at rest with respect to the other, one sees:
(Eq 6.) ve = 0
Hence:
(Eq 7.) t1/t2 = 1/ (1 0).5 = 1/1 = 1
Such a ratio as (Eq. 7) shows is exactly what each successive try of the linear M  M test has obtained…. (notice: Linear not angular!). Lorentz and Fitzgerald knew there had to be an ether; so they developed their well known transforms  an act which was in essence a way of saying, there has to be an ether…we'll adjust our observed results by a factor which will bring our hypothetical expectations and our test results into accord….
Their whole transform was based on the existence of ether space! Their transform, in essence said that length shortened, mass flattened, and time dilated as a body moved through the ether.
Einstein came along in 1905 saying the Mitchellson Morley test showed the velocity of light to be a universal constant to the observer. Seizing upon this and the LorentzFitzgerald transforms, Einstein was able to formulate his Special Relativity which resulted in the now famous E = Mc2 …the derivation of which follows:
Starting with (Eq.5) t1/t2 = (1 ve2 / c2 )  .5
The LorentzFitzgerald transform factor for (Eq.5) becomes (1 ve2 / c2 )  .5
(to bring t2= t1) giving t1/t2 an observed value of (1).
Assuming Lorentz and Fitzgerald's supposition to be correct one should look at massinmotion as the observer on the mass see's it versus massinmotion as the universal observer sees it,…
Let m1 = mass as it appears to the riding observer
Let v1 = velocity as detected by rider
Let m2 = mass as universal observer sees it
Let v2 = velocity as universal observer sees it
Then it follows (from Lorentz and Fitzgerald) that:
(Eq. 9) m1 v1 not = m2 v2
So  to equate the two products. Lorentz and Fitzgerald devised their transform factor (1 ve2 / c2 )  .5 which would bring m1 v1 = m2 v2 to either observer,… yielding the following extension
(Eq. 10) m1s1/t1 Not = m2s2/t1
or,…
(Eq. 10) m1s1 Not = m2s2
then, by substitution of the transform factor s2 = s1(1 ve2 / c2 )  .5(assuming time is reference) into (Eq. 10.) one obtains: m1s1 = m2s1(1 ve2 / c2 )  .5
which reduces to:
(Eq. 11) m1 = m2 (1 ve2 / c2 )  .5
To re evaluate this relative change in mass, one should investigate the expanded form of the transform factor (1 ve2 / c2 )  .5 (which transforms t1=t2) It is of the general binomial type:
(Eq. 12) (1 b) a
Hence it can be expressed as the sum of an infinite series:
(Eq. 13) 1 + ab = a(a+1)b2 /2! + a(a+1)(a+2)b3/3! + …etc
where b2 is less than 1
So  setting a = .5 and b = ve2 / c2
One obtains:
(Eq. 14) 1 + (ve2 / 2c2) + (3v4/8c4) + (5v6/16c6) + etc…
For low velocities in the order of .25c and less than the evaluation of (1 ve2 / c2 )  .5
Is closely approximated by, the first two elements of (Eq. 14):
(Eq. 15) (1 ve2 / c2 )  .5= 1+ve2 /2c2
so (Eq. 11) becomes:
(Eq. 16.) m2= m1(1+ ve2 / c2)…where ve less than .25c
developing further,… m2= m1 + m1 ve2 /2c2
(Eq. 17) m2  m1 = .5 m1 ve2 /2c2
remembering energy (E) is represented by:
(Eq. 18) E = .5mv2…( where ve less than .25c)
One can substitute (Eq. 18) into (Eq. 17) giving…
(Eq. 19) m2  m1 = E/c2…(assuming ve = v)
Representing the change in mass (m2  m1) by M gives:
(Eq. 20) M = E/ c2
Or, in the more familiar form using the general (m) for (M):
(Eq. 21) E = m c2
(Note, however, that (Eq. 14) should be used for the greatest accuracy  especially where ve is greater than .25c)
Looking at the assumption in (Eq. 19)…( ve ) was the term used in the beginning to represent the ether wind velocity… This means Einstein used fluid space as a basis for special relativity. His failing was in declaring the velocity of light an observable limit to the velocity of any mass when it should only have been the limit to any observable electromagnetic wave velocity in the ether . The velocity of light is only a limit velocity in the fluid of space where it is being observed. If the energy density of space is greater or less in another part of space, then the relativistic velocity of light will pass up and down through the reference light wave velocity limit  if such exists.
Do not fall into the trap of assuming that this fluid space cannot have varying energydensity Perhaps the reader is this very moment saying, an incompressible fluid space does not allow concentrations of energy  but he is wrong  dead wrong!
When a fixed density fluid is set in harmonic motion about a point or centre, the number of masses passing a fixed reference point per unit time can be observed as increased mass (or concentrated energy). Although the density (mass per volume) is constant, the mass velocity product yields the illusion of more mass per volume per time. Space is an incompressible fluid of varying energy density…in this author’s opinion!
The apparent absurdity of infinitely increasing  mass and infinitely decreasing length as a mass approaches the light wave velocity is rationalized by realizing that space has inertia and as such offers inertial resistance to the moving mass. The energy of the moving mass is transmitted in front of it into the medium of space. The resulting curl of inertial resistance increases as negative momentum to the extent the mass is converted to radiant energy as it meets it’s own reflected mass in resistance. However  to the Star Trek fans, take heart… just as man broke the sound velocity limit (sound barrier) he can also break the light velocity limit (light barrier). By projecting a highdensity polarized field of resonating electrons to spoil or warp the pressure wave of the inertial curl, the hyperlight craft can slip through the warp opening before it closes,  emitting the characteristics of a shock wave. Such a spoiler would be formed by using the electrodynamic, highenergydensity electron waves which would normally proceed before the hyperlight craft, as a primary function of propulsion. When a similar function is executed by hypersonic aircraft, a sonic boom is formed as the as the inertial curl collapses on itself. In space, the light velocity equivalent to this sonic boom would be in the form of Cherenkov radiation which is emitted as a mass crosses the lightvelocity threshold sending tangential light to the direction of travel.
Ether Existence Verified.
In 1913, the rotational version of the linear M  M experiment was successfully performed by G Sagnac (see p 65  67 of The Physical Foundations of General Relativity by D.W. Sciama, Heineman Educational Books Ltd., 48 Charles St., London WIX8AH) In 1925 Mitchellson and Gale used the spinning earth as their rotational analogue to the linear M  M experiment. It also showed successfully that the velocity of light sent in the direction of spin around the perimeter of a spinning disc (or of the surface of the earth) varied from the velocity of the light sent against the spin. (Refer diagram 3 Below).
The error of the MM experiment is the test results are also valid for the case where there is an ether and it, too, is moving along with the same relative velocity and orbit as Earth maintains around the Sun. The Tea Cup Analogy can be used to explain the error.
If one stirs a cup of tea which has some small tea leaves floating on it's surface, (obviously before the invention of the ubiquitous tea bag!) one notices some of these tea leaves orbiting the vortex in the centre of the cup. The leaves closer to the centre travel faster than those father from the centre (both in linear and angular velocity).
Now, one must imagine oneself greatly reduced in size and sitting upon one of these orbiting leaves. If one were to put his hands over the edge of his tea leaf on any side, would he feel any tea moving past?…No! The reason is that the motion of the tea is the force that has caused the velocity of the leaf. One could not detect any motion, if both himself and the tea were travelling in the same direction and the same velocity. However, If one had arms long enough to stick a hand in the tea closer to either the centre or the rim of the cup  where the velocities were different to his own then he would feel tea moving faster or slower than himself (respectively).
Also, if one were to spin his tea leaf at the same time as it orbits about the centre, placing his hands into the tea immediately surrounding his leaf would show inertial resistance against the spin moment of his leaf.
Solar Tea Cup
In the preceding analogy, the centre of the spinning tea (or vortex centre) represented the sun, the leaf: the earth; The tea: The ether; and the riders hands: the light beams of the M  M test. In essence, what Mitchellson, Morley, Einstein and many other scientists have said is that the M  M test showed the velocity of light was not affected by the earth's orbital motion.
"Therefore" they have said, "we have one of two conclusions to draw";
1. ) The Earth is orbiting the sun and there is no ether, or,
2. ) The Earth is not orbiting the sun and there is an ether but since the earth is not moving through the ether, the ether "wind" cannot be detected. Obviously, this conclusion is negated by the Earth's observed helio centric orbit.
However, their reasoning should also have incorporated a THIRD option.
3) The Earth is orbiting the sun…and so is the ether; therefore, no ether wind could be detected in the orbital vector immediately in the vicinity of Earth.
In other words, the test results cannot prove or disprove the existence of an ether…only whether or not the earth is moving relative to the ether!
C Not Constant
Remember, in 1913, G Sagnac performed his version of the MM experiment and corrected the inconclusive results which Mitchellson and Morley's test had obtained. In Sagnac's rotational analogue of the MM test the velocity of light was shown to vary. Aalso in 1925, Mitchellson and Gale verified Sagnac's results with their own rotational analogue. Even more recently, similar verification has been made using a ringlaser system to detect the rotational velocity of the Earth, relative to the ether,
Relativists Discard Evidence
By the time the ether wind was proven to exist, Einstein's theories were already winning strong support on the merits of celestial observations which closely agreed with Einstein's predicted values. As a result the scientific community decided to explain the ether wind phenomenon as a result of Earth's spinning in it's own ether blanket which Earth was apparently dragging through space. No explanation was ever agreed upon as to the origin or extent of this ether blanket. It was simply a way to sweep a discrepancy under the carpet.
Einstein Admits Error.
In a biography written just before his death, Professor Einstein, is quoted as admitting he had a fundamental error in Relativity. It was he said, one whichwhen correctedwill explain how light  an obvious wave form  can be propagated across an apparently noninertial space. Einstein also stated that the discovery of the solution to this error would probably be the result of some serendipitous discovery in the 1960's.
However, before he died, Einstein did manage to partially correct his error, With the help of the well known Dr Erwin Schrodinger, Dr Einstein, was able to construct a 'total theory' for existence. It was called the "Unified Field Theory". Although Dr Einstein was able to lay the basic framework before his death, it is reasonably certain that a more readily useable version of the "Unified Field Theory" was only completed by other physicists after Einstein had died.
One of the more promising contributions toward a useable unified field theory was offered by Dr Stanley Deser and Dr. Richard Arnowitt. They took the General Theory of Relativity which Einstein had devised and constructed a "bridge" or "creation tensor" to link the energy of nuclear fields with that of gravitational fields by covariant matrices. The basic relationship of General Relativity which they used as a basis for their system is:
Ruv .5guvR = 8(pi)kTuv
Ruv = Ricci's tencomponent subRiemannian space, curvature tensor
guv = the metric tensor
R = the selected Ricci scalar components
K = a universal constant: proportional to Newton's gravitational constant
Pi = the usual constant 3.14etc
Tuv = the components (potentials) of the energy stress tensor
Although Deser and Arnowitt's proposed equations were quite difficult to work with, it is rumored that subsequent linear variations have been developed  allowing major leaps in science and technology to develop.
When the correctly formulated Unified Field Theory is finally released to the public it will be recognized quite easily; for it will have explained why the proton is exactly 1836 times the gravitational mass of an electron…why there is no neutral mumeson of mass 200,…why (h) is a constant…and why hc/e2 is always equal to (137).”
Let me know if you've at least understood this far please!!
Cheers!
__________________
Madness takes its toll  please have exact change handy!
The primary manifestation of Time is Change
Ee does NOT equal Em Cee Squared!
M = Δ T
Last edited by Ian Moone : 08272011 at 05:08 AM.
