Re: Tesla vs. Einstein: The Ether & the Birth of the New Physics
This all pervasive "Ether problem" in relation to Einsteins special relativity e = mc^2 was well understood way back in the early 1970's when a young us physicist living in Australia one Stan Deyo published his book "The Cosmic Conspiracy".
The following lengthy quotation, setting out the speed of light performed my Mitchell Morley and later Mitchell Sagnac experimental error, and the erroneous assumptions this made which led to Einsteins work on relativity is from that book.
" “Einstein's Relativity Error
“The physical sciences in 1873 seemed to once again take on an air of stability as James Clerk Maxwell published his, 'Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism.'
In this paper, he discussed electricity, magnetism, and electromagnetism as functions of waves in a fluid space (ether). His theory held popular support until the year 1887 when the two U.S. physicists AA Michelson and Edward W Morley performed their historic experiment with light.
Their experiment (The Michelson-Morley experiment) was designed to use light as a means to determine if space were a 'fluid' as Maxwell's equations had assumed.
The M-M test results, however, appeared to deny the existence of fluid (or ether) space. To explain the 'apparent' failure of the M-M test to detect the ether, Hendrik Lorentz and George Fitzgerald developed their now famous 'transforms' (The Lorentz-Fitzgerald Transforms - 1902) in which length contractions, mass increase and time lag were offered as explanation for the negative test result. Note that the Lorentz - Fitzgerald transforms still treated space as an inertial fluid, one undetectable by known technology.
Einstein, who first began the formulation of his special theory of relativity in 1895, published it in 1905. He seized upon the Lorentz -Fitzgerald transforms and the M-M test results as evidence of a universal axiom: The velocity of light is (to the observer) the limit measurable velocity in the universe, (this does not mean it is the limit velocity in the universe however).
The discipline details
Einstein was faced with an apparent paradox, as to the nature of space. It behaved like a fluid in many ways - yet in others it behaved like an abstract, ten-component Ricci Tensor from the Reimannian model of the Universe. The failure of the M-M test to detect an ether was the final straw. Yet, hard as he tried, Einstein failed to remove the ether from E=MC^2.
The following discussion should illustrate this point.
Diagram One above is a schematic of the M-M test. It was conducted on the basis that if an ether existed, the earth would be moving "through" it. Hence there would be a relative velocity between earth and the fluid of space.
It was reasoned that by splitting a beam of light (F) into two parts; sending one out and back in line with the direction of the earth's orbital path, (to mirror A) from Half silvered mirror (G) and glass plate (D); and recombining the two beams in the interferometer (E) one should be able to detect a shift in the phases of the two beams relative to one another.
This shift could accurately be predicted by knowing the velocity of light (c)
And the velocity (Ve) of Earth through orbital space. Their reasoning was as follows (refer diag. 1, diag. 2a, daig, 2b):
c2 = a2 + b2C = velocity of light = velocity from G to B by fixed extra-terrestrial observer
S = distance GA = GB
T1 = go-return time in-line (GA - AG)
T2 = go return time at right angles (GB-BG)
T = .5 t T2
V1= apparent velocity from g to B by earth observer.
Then the time (T1) is determined by:[s/(c-ve)] + [s/(c+ve))] = t1 which reduces to:
(Eq.1) 2sc/(c2 - ve2) = t1
Also, the time (t2) is determined by first solving for (v1) in terms of ( c ) and (Ve) using the Pythagorean Theorem (c2 = a2 + b2)…. Or, in this instance: (G to B)2 = (G to M)2 + (M to B)2
By substitution, c2 = ve2 + v12
(Eq.2) v1= (c2 - ve2).5
Now, solving for the time (t) - which is the same over GM, GB, MB - of the GB trip by substituting s/t = v1 in (Eq.2) , one obtains:
(Eq.3) s/t = (c2 - ve2).5
(Eq.3) t = s/(c2 - ve2).5
Substituting: t = .5t2
Gives: t2/2=s/(c2 - ve2).5
(Eq.4) t2= 2s /(c2 - ve2).5
by comparing the ratio of the in-line go-return time (t1) to the right angle go-return time (t2) one obtains:
(Eq.5) t1/t2 =[2sc / (c2 - ve2).5 / 2s
which reduces to:
(Eq. 5.) t1/t2 = (1- ve2 / c2 ) - .5
Now then, if the light source is at rest with respect to the other, one sees:
(Eq 6.) ve = 0
(Eq 7.) t1/t2 = 1/ (1 -0).5 = 1/1 = 1
Such a ratio as (Eq. 7) shows is exactly what each successive try of the linear M - M test has obtained…. (notice: Linear not angular!). Lorentz and Fitzgerald knew there had to be an ether; so they developed their well known transforms - an act which was in essence a way of saying, there has to be an ether…we'll adjust our observed results by a factor which will bring our hypothetical expectations and our test results into accord….
Their whole transform was based on the existence of ether space! Their transform, in essence said that length shortened, mass flattened, and time dilated as a body moved through the ether.
Einstein came along in 1905 saying the Mitchellson Morley test showed the velocity of light to be a universal constant to the observer. Seizing upon this and the Lorentz-Fitzgerald transforms, Einstein was able to formulate his Special Relativity which resulted in the now famous E = Mc2 …the derivation of which follows:
Starting with (Eq.5) t1/t2 = (1- ve2 / c2 ) - .5
The Lorentz-Fitzgerald transform factor for (Eq.5) becomes (1- ve2 / c2 ) - .5
(to bring t2= t1) giving t1/t2 an observed value of (1).
Assuming Lorentz and Fitzgerald's supposition to be correct one should look at mass-in-motion as the observer on the mass see's it versus mass-in-motion as the universal observer sees it,…
Let m1 = mass as it appears to the riding observer
Let v1 = velocity as detected by rider
Let m2 = mass as universal observer sees it
Let v2 = velocity as universal observer sees it
Then it follows (from Lorentz and Fitzgerald) that:
(Eq. 9) m1 v1 not = m2 v2
So - to equate the two products. Lorentz and Fitzgerald devised their transform factor (1- ve2 / c2 ) - .5 which would bring m1 v1 = m2 v2 to either observer,… yielding the following extension
(Eq. 10) m1s1/t1 Not = m2s2/t1
(Eq. 10) m1s1 Not = m2s2
then, by substitution of the transform factor s2 = s1(1- ve2 / c2 ) - .5(assuming time is reference) into (Eq. 10.) one obtains: m1s1 = m2s1(1- ve2 / c2 ) - .5
which reduces to:
(Eq. 11) m1 = m2 (1- ve2 / c2 ) - .5
To re evaluate this relative change in mass, one should investigate the expanded form of the transform factor (1- ve2 / c2 ) - .5 (which transforms t1=t2) It is of the general binomial type:
(Eq. 12) (1- b) -a
Hence it can be expressed as the sum of an infinite series:
(Eq. 13) 1 + ab = a(a+1)b2 /2! + a(a+1)(a+2)b3/3! + …etc
where b2 is less than 1
So - setting a = .5 and b = ve2 / c2
(Eq. 14) 1 + (ve2 / 2c2) + (3v4/8c4) + (5v6/16c6) + etc…
For low velocities in the order of .25c and less than the evaluation of (1- ve2 / c2 ) - .5
Is closely approximated by, the first two elements of (Eq. 14):
(Eq. 15) (1- ve2 / c2 ) - .5= 1+ve2 /2c2
so (Eq. 11) becomes:
(Eq. 16.) m2= m1(1+ ve2 / c2)…where ve less than .25c
developing further,… m2= m1 + m1 ve2 /2c2
(Eq. 17) m2 - m1 = .5 m1 ve2 /2c2
remembering energy (E) is represented by:
(Eq. 18) E = .5mv2…( where ve less than .25c)
One can substitute (Eq. 18) into (Eq. 17) giving…
(Eq. 19) m2 - m1 = E/c2…(assuming ve = v)
Representing the change in mass (m2 - m1) by M gives:
(Eq. 20) M = E/ c2
Or, in the more familiar form using the general (m) for (M):
(Eq. 21) E = m c2
(Note, however, that (Eq. 14) should be used for the greatest accuracy - especially where ve is greater than .25c)
Looking at the assumption in (Eq. 19)…( ve ) was the term used in the beginning to represent the ether wind velocity… This means Einstein used fluid space as a basis for special relativity. His failing was in declaring the velocity of light an observable limit to the velocity of any mass when it should only have been the limit to any observable electromagnetic wave velocity in the ether . The velocity of light is only a limit velocity in the fluid of space where it is being observed. If the energy density of space is greater or less in another part of space, then the relativistic velocity of light will pass up and down through the reference light wave velocity limit - if such exists.
Do not fall into the trap of assuming that this fluid space cannot have varying energy-density Perhaps the reader is this very moment saying, an incompressible fluid space does not allow concentrations of energy - but he is wrong - dead wrong!
When a fixed density fluid is set in harmonic motion about a point or centre, the number of masses passing a fixed reference point per unit time can be observed as increased mass (or concentrated energy). Although the density (mass per volume) is constant, the mass velocity product yields the illusion of more mass per volume per time. Space is an incompressible fluid of varying energy density…in this author’s opinion!
The apparent absurdity of infinitely- increasing - mass and infinitely decreasing length as a mass approaches the light wave velocity is rationalized by realizing that space has inertia and as such offers inertial resistance to the moving mass. The energy of the moving mass is transmitted in front of it into the medium of space. The resulting curl of inertial resistance increases as negative momentum to the extent the mass is converted to radiant energy as it meets it’s own reflected mass in resistance. However - to the Star Trek fans, take heart… just as man broke the sound velocity limit (sound barrier) he can also break the light velocity limit (light barrier). By projecting a high-density polarized field of resonating electrons to spoil or warp the pressure wave of the inertial curl, the hyper-light craft can slip through the warp opening before it closes, - emitting the characteristics of a shock wave. Such a spoiler would be formed by using the electro-dynamic, high-energy-density electron waves which would normally proceed before the hyper-light craft, as a primary function of propulsion. When a similar function is executed by hypersonic aircraft, a sonic boom is formed as the as the inertial curl collapses on itself. In space, the light velocity equivalent to this sonic boom would be in the form of Cherenkov radiation which is emitted as a mass crosses the light-velocity threshold sending tangential light to the direction of travel.
Ether Existence Verified.
In 1913, the rotational version of the linear M - M experiment was successfully performed by G Sagnac (see p 65 - 67 of The Physical Foundations of General Relativity by D.W. Sciama, Heineman Educational Books Ltd., 48 Charles St., London WIX8AH) In 1925 Mitchellson and Gale used the spinning earth as their rotational analogue to the linear M - M experiment. It also showed successfully that the velocity of light sent in the direction of spin around the perimeter of a spinning disc (or of the surface of the earth) varied from the velocity of the light sent against the spin. (Refer diagram 3 Below).
The error of the M-M experiment is the test results are also valid for the case where there is an ether and it, too, is moving along with the same relative velocity and orbit as Earth maintains around the Sun.
The Tea Cup Analogy can be used to explain the error.
If one stirs a cup of tea which has some small tea leaves floating on it's surface, (obviously before the invention of the ubiquitous tea bag!) one notices some of these tea leaves orbiting the vortex in the centre of the cup. The leaves closer to the centre travel faster than those father from the centre (both in linear and angular velocity).
Now, one must imagine oneself greatly reduced in size and sitting upon one of these orbiting leaves. If one were to put his hands over the edge of his tea leaf on any side, would he feel any tea moving past?…No! The reason is that the motion of the tea is the force that has caused the velocity of the leaf. One could not detect any motion, if both himself and the tea were travelling in the same direction and the same velocity. However, If one had arms long enough to stick a hand in the tea closer to either the centre or the rim of the cup - where the velocities were different to his own then he would feel tea moving faster or slower than himself (respectively).
Also, if one were to spin his tea leaf at the same time as it orbits about the centre, placing his hands into the tea immediately surrounding his leaf would show inertial resistance against the spin moment of his leaf.
Solar Tea Cup
In the preceding analogy, the centre of the spinning tea (or vortex centre) represented the sun, the leaf: the earth; The tea: The ether; and the riders hands: the light beams of the M - M test. In essence, what Mitchellson, Morley, Einstein and many other scientists have said is that the M - M test showed the volocity of light was not affected by the earth's orbital motion.
"Therefore" they have said, "we have one of two conclusions to draw";
1. ) The Earth is orbiting the sun and there is no ether, or,
2. ) The Earth is not orbiting the sun and there is an ether but since the earth is not moving through the ether, the ether "wind" cannot be detected. Obviously, this conclusion is negated by the Earth's observed helio centric orbit.
However, their reasoning should also have incorporated a THIRD option.
3) The Earth is orbiting the sun…and so is the ether; therefore, no ether wind could be detected in the orbital vector immediately in the vicinity of Earth.
In other words, the test results cannot prove or disprove the existence of an ether…only whether or not the earth is moving relative to the ether!
Few people even today realize that such a fundamental error exists in special relativity.
I would suggest that Tesla knew different!
Einsteins own professor Dr Hendrick Lorentze - (The Lorentze Transforms) knew that Einsteins special relativity theorem was bunkum and always referred to it as 'The Einstein Theory' in mock derision, because had he got to peer review his students avante garde paper - it would never have made it to publication...in the esteemed German peer review journal Alannerlyne De Physique!
In Fact Einsteins special relativity paper was NEVER peer reviewed!
To this day this is no proof that the speed of light in a vacuum is a constant and in truth mathematically there is ONLY one value for the speed of light that makes e=mc^2 valid and that is infinity.
You can read more on this on my posts in the What is TIME, and Other thread about Einsteins error both within this science section of this forum.
While I have already published this info now twice here people still post it just in a different format - as if it is somehow "new information".
It maters not whether its attributed to Tesla or anyone else - the fact remains Einstein was wrong and his paper was never peer reviewed.
He actually won his nobel prize for his peer reviewed paper of the photo electric effect.... yet he is remembered by history for "special relativity" which frankly is all bunkum that has led physics astray for the last 100 years!
Not that anyone cares.
Madness takes its toll - please have exact change handy!
The primary manifestation of Time is Change
Ee does NOT equal Em Cee Squared!
M = Δ T