That is not a derailed train, that is a train with cars that exploded while on the tracks. These are the new "upgraded" cars because fracked crude is so explosive..
Why is fracked crude so explosive? Because it's Kerogen, an organic substance full of ancient deadly bacteria that was sealed up in shale when the dinosaurs were killed off. That's why you find dinosaur bones in the shale...
Perform random acts of kindness on strangers who are in need.
Just in case folks don't understand what Kerogen is.
1. n. [Geology, Geochemistry, Shale Gas]
The naturally occurring, solid, insoluble organic matter that occurs in source rocks and can yield oil upon heating. Kerogen is the portion of naturally occurring organic matter that is nonextractable using organic solvents. Typical organic constituents of kerogen are algae and woody plant material. Kerogens have a high molecular weight relative to bitumen, or soluble organic matter. Bitumen forms from kerogen during petroleum generation. Kerogens are described as Type I, consisting of mainly algal and amorphous (but presumably algal) kerogen and highly likely to generate oil; Type II, mixed terrestrial and marine source material that can generate waxy oil; and Type III, woody terrestrial source material that typically generates gas.
NOV. 28, 2001
When microorganisms die in ponds of water or in the ocean, they slowly sink to the bottom, forming a thick black sludge. Over time, this sludge becomes buried and compacted by more organisms and layers of mud. If oxygen is left out of the mixture, the organic matter can’t decay and it eventually fossilizes into the material called kerogen.
“We grew bacteria collected from this rock and measured the C-14 content of their cells,” says Petsch. “These measurements showed that these living bacteria contain very little to no C-14. The only way that living organisms can contain no C-14 is to live in an environment where all of the available carbon is also C-14 free.”
Kerogen was thought to be resistant to bacterial consumption before this discovery. While most of the organic materials in algae and bacteria – such as the proteins, nucleic acids and carbohydrates – are usually degraded or consumed very quickly after a cell dies, the materials that eventually form kerogen are not as easily degraded or eaten by other organisms. These materials accumulate in sediments, lasting for millions of years. The composition of this fossilized material tends to be very resistant to chemical or biological attack.
“In composition, the kerogen in New Albany Shale is somewhat similar to many common plastics like polyethylene,” says Petsch. “Think of plastic baggies. We know that most plastics persist a long time in the environment.”
This discovery indicates that microorganisms may play a more active role in the Earth’s carbon cycle than previously recognized. Specifically, this bacterial feasting may play a significant role in recycling the carbon in kerogen. At the present time, however, the scientists don’t know how prevalent are the bacteria, or how much carbon they consume.
You see, back in 2001, NASA was considering this astrobiology, today, it's called fracking...
Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery (MEOR) is a biological based technology consisting in manipulating function or structure, or both, of microbial environments existing in oil reservoirs. The ultimate aim of MEOR is to improve the recovery of oil entrapped in porous media while increasing economic profits. MEOR is a tertiary oil extraction technology allowing the partial recovery of the commonly residual two-thirds of oil, thus increasing the life of mature oil reservoirs.
MEOR is a multidisciplinary field incorporating, among others: geology, chemistry, microbiology, fluid mechanics, petroleum engineering, environmental engineering and chemical engineering. The microbial processes proceeding in MEOR can be classified according to the oil production problem in the field:
well bore clean up removes mud and other debris blocking the channels where oil flows through;
well stimulation improves the flow of oil from the drainage area into the well bore;
and enhanced water floods increase microbial activity by injecting selected microbes and sometimes nutrients.
From the engineering point of view, MEOR is a system integrated by the reservoir, microbes, nutrients and protocol of well injection.