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Old 02-24-2006, 07:09 PM
Barbara Barbara is offline
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Default Jewish Involvement In Black Slave Trade To The Americas


Jewish Involvement In
Black Slave Trade
To The Americas

By Rabbi Marc Lee Raphael
2-24-6

The following passages are from Dr. Raphael's book Jews and Judaism in the United States: A Documentary History (New York: Behrman House, Inc., Pub, 1983), pp. 14, 23-25.

"Jews also took an active part in the Dutch colonial slave trade; indeed, the bylaws of the Recife and Mauricia congregations (1648) included an imposta (Jewish tax) of five soldos for each Negro slave a Brazilian Jew purchased from the West Indies Company. Slave auctions were postponed if they fell on a Jewish holiday. In Curacao in the seventeenth century, as well as in the British colonies of Barbados and Jamaica in the eighteenth century, Jewish merchants played a major role in the slave trade. In fact, in all the American colonies, whether French (Martinique), British, or Dutch, Jewish merchants frequently dominated.

"This was no less true on the North American mainland, where during the eighteenth century Jews participated in the 'triangular trade' that brought slaves from Africa to the West Indies and there exchanged them for molasses, which in turn was taken to New England and converted into rum for sale in Africa. Isaac Da Costa of Charleston in the 1750's, David Franks of Philadelphia in the 1760's, and Aaron Lopez of Newport in the late 1760's and early 1770's dominated Jewish slave trading on the American continent."

Dr. Raphael discusses the central role of the Jews in the New World commerce and the African slave trade (pp. 23-25):

SEVENTEENTH AND EIGHTEENTH CENTURIES JEWISH INTER-ISLAND TRADE: CURACAO, 1656

During the sixteenth century, exiled from their Spanish homeland and hard-pressed to escape the clutches of the Inquisition, Spanish and Portuguese Jews fled to the Netherlands; the Dutch enthusiastically welcomed these talented, skilled husinessmen.

While thriving in Amsterdam - where they became the hub of a unique urban Jewish universe and attained status that anticipated Jewish emancipation in the West by over a century - they began in the 1500's and 1600's to establish themselves in the Dutch and English colonies in the New World. These included Curacao, Surinam, Recife, and New Amsterdam (Dutch) as well as Barbados, Jamaica, Newport, and Savannah (English).

In these European outposts the Jews, with their years of mercantile experience and networks of friends and family providing market reports of great use, played a significant role in the merchant capitalism, commercial revolution, and territorial expansion that developed the New World and established the colonial economies. The Jewish-Caribbean nexus provided Jews with the opportunity to claim a disproportionate influence in seventeenth and eighteenth century New World commerce, and enabled West Indian Jewry-far outnumbering its coreligionists further north-to enjoy a centrality which North American Jewry would not achieve for a long time to come.

Groups of Jews began to arrive in Surinam in the middle of the seven-teenth century, after the Portuguese regained control of northern Brazil. By 1694, twenty-seven years after the British had surrendered Surinam to the Dutch, there were about 100 Jewish families and fifty single Jews there, or about 570 persons. They possessed more than forty estates and 9,000 slaves, contributed 25,905 pounds of sugar as a gift for the building of a hospital, and carried on an active trade with Newport and other colonial ports. By 1730, Jews owned 115 plantations and were a large part of a sugar export business which sent out 21,680,000 pounds of sugar to European and New World markets in 1730 alone.

Slave trading was a major feature of Jewish economic life in Surinam which as a major stopping-off point in the triangular trade. Both North American and Caribbean Jews played a key role in this commerce: records of a slave sale in 1707 reveal that the ten largest Jewish purchasers (10,400 guilders) spent more than 25 percent of the total funds (38,605 guilders) exchanged.

Jewish economic life in the Dutch West Indies, as in the North American colonies, consisted primarily of mercantile communities, with large inequities in the distribution of wealth. Most Jews were shopkeepers, middlemen, or petty merchants who received encouragement and support from Dutch authorities. In Curacao, for example, Jewish communal life began after the Portuguese victory in 1654.

In 1656, the community founded a congregation, and in the early 1670's brought its first rabbi to the island. Curacao, with its large natural harbor, was the steppng-stone to the other Caribbean islands and thus ideally suited geographically for commerce.

The Jews were the recipients of favorable charters containing generous economic privileges granted by the Dutch West Indies Company in Amsterdam. The economic life of the Jewish community of Curacao revolved around ownership of sugar plantations and marketing of sugar, the importing of manufactured goods, and a heavy involvement in the slave trade, within a decade of their arrival, Jews owned 80 percent of the Curacao plantations. The strength of the Jewish trade lay in connections in Western Europe as well as ownership of the ships used in commerce. While Jews carried on an active trade with French and English colonies in the Caribbean, their principal market was the Spanish Main (today Venezuela and Colombia).

Extant tax lists give us a glimpse of their dominance. Of the eighteen wealthiest Jews in the 1702 and 1707 tax lists, nine either owned a ship or had at least a share in a vessel. By 1721 a letter to the Amsterdam Jewish community claimed that "nearly all the navigation...was in the hands of the Jews."' Yet another indication of the economic success of Curacao's Jews is the fact that in 1707 the island's 377 residents were assessed by the Governor and his Council a total of 4,002 pesos; 104 Jews, or 27.6 percent of the taxpayers, contributed 1,380 pesos, or 34.5 percent of the entire amount assessed.

In the British West Indies, two 1680 tax lists survive, both from Barbados; they, too, provide useful information about Jewish economic life. In Bridgetown itself, out of a total of 404 households, 54 households or 300 persons were Jewish, 240 of them living in "ye Towne of S. Michael ye Bridge Town." Contrary to most impressions, "many, indeed, most of them, were very poor." There were only a few planters, and most Jews were not naturalized or endenizened (and thus could not import goods or pursue debtors in court). But for merchants holding letters of endenization, opportunities were not lacking. Barbados sugar-and its by-products rum and molasses-were in great demand, and in addition to playing a role in its export, Jewish merchants were active in the import trade.

Forty-five Jewish households were taxed in Barbados in 1680, and more than half of them contributed only 11.7 percent of the total sum raised. While the richest five gave almost half the Jewish total, they were but 11.1 percent of the taxable population. The tax list of 1679-80 shows a similar picture; of fifty-one householders, nineteen (37.2 percent) gave less than one-tenth of the total, while the four richest merchants gave almost one-third of the total.

An interesting record of interisland trade involving a Jewish merchant and the islands of Barbados and Curacao comes from correspondence of 1656. It reminds us that sometimes the commercial trips were not well planned and that Jewish captains - who frequently acted as commercial agents as well - would decide where to sell their cargo, at what price, and what goods to bring back on the return trip.

(End of excerpt)


Tony Martin is African studies professor at Wellesley College and has taught at Wellesley College, Massachusetts since 1973. He was tenured in 1975 and has been a full professor of African Studies since 1979. Prior to coming to Wellesley he taught at the University of Michigan-Flint, the Cipriani Labour College (Trinidad) and St. Mary's College (Trinidad). He has been a visiting professor at the University of Minnesota, Brandeis University, Brown University and The Colorado College. He also spent a year as an honorary research fellow at the University of the West Indies, Trinidad.

Professor Martin has authored or compiled or edited eleven books, including Literary Garveyism: Garvey, Black Arts and the Harlem Renaissance, and the classic study of the Garvey Movement, Race First: the Ideological and Organizational Struggles of Marcus Garvey and the Universal Negro Improvement Association.. His most recent book is The Jewish Onslaught: Despatches from the Wellesley Battlefront. Martin qualified as a barrister-at-law at the Honourable Society of Gray's Inn (London) in 1965, did a B. Sc. honours degree in economics at the University of Hull (England) and the M.A. and Ph.D. in history at Michigan State University.

Martin's articles and reviews have appeared in the Journal of Negro History, American Historical Review, African Studies Review, Washington Post Book World, Journal of Caribbean History, Journal of American History, Black Books Bulletin, Science and Society, Jamaica Journal and many other places. His work is to be found in several anthologies and encyclopedias. He has received a number of academic and community awards.

Martin is well known as a lecturer in many countries. He has spoken to university and general audiences all over the United States, Canada, the Caribbean and England, and also in Africa, Australia, Bermuda and South America. In 1990 he delivered the annual DuBois/Padmore/Nkrumah lectures in Ghana.

Professor Martin is currently working on biographies of three Caribbean women - Amy Ashwood Garvey, Audrey Jeffers and Trinidad's Kathleen Davis ("Auntie Kay"). He is also nearing completion of a study of European Jewish immigration into Trinidad in the 1930s.


The Jewish Onslaught
Despatches From The Wellesley Battlefront
By Tony Martin

"...a polemic of the highest order... the best example of an African answering critics since David Walker's Appeal to the Colored Citizens of the World." - Molefi Asante, Journal Of Black Studies

"Professor Martin at long last deals with the Henry Gates/Cornel West attacks on Afrocentricity.... Martin provides a solid analysis of the historical use of Blacks by whites to discredit original Black thought deemed unacceptable by non-Blacks....

"I compare The Jewish Onslaught to the classic third chapter of DuBois' The Souls of Black Folk entitled 'Of Mr. Booker T. Washington and Others....' Martin has written a book that years from now will be considered a classic.... It is simply a must reading on a controversial subject that needs greater airing than some of the more timid political attempts of recent years." - Raymond Winbush, The Voice Of Black Studies

" Tony Martin has been forced to delve into the relationship between the Jews and Blacks and in the process, he has distilled a work that is informative, fascinating and one which will heighten the consciousness of Black people everywhere." - Carl Wint, The Sunday Gleaner

#1 Bestseller
(Your Black Books Guide)

Best Book Of The Year
(Black Literary Awards, 1994)
1993. vii+137pp. ISBN 0-912469-30-7.

Subject: Who owned the slaving ships?



Name Of Slave Ships And Their Owners:

The 'Abigail-Caracoa' - Aaron Lopez, Moses Levy, Jacob Crown
Isaac Levy and Nathan Simpson

The'Nassau' - Moses Levy

The 'Four Sisters' - Moses Levy

The 'Anne' & The 'Eliza' - Justus Bosch and John Abrams

The 'Prudent Betty' - Henry Cruger and Jacob Phoenix

The 'Hester' - Mordecai and David Gomez

The 'Elizabeth' - Mordecai and David Gomez

The 'Antigua' - Nathan Marston and Abram Lyell

The 'Betsy' - Wm. De Woolf

The 'Polly' - James De Woolf

The 'White Horse' - Jan de Sweevts

The 'Expedition' - John and Jacob Roosevelt

The 'Charlotte' - Moses and Sam Levy and Jacob Franks

The 'Franks' - Moses and Sam Levy


A video, "The Jewish Role in the Black Slave Trade," a speech by Prof. Tony Martin with an introduction by Hoffman, remains online at Google, as of this writing. Viewers who wish to see it before it, too is censored by Google, can access it here:

http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=-3435039175602962781

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Old 02-25-2006, 08:22 PM
sablefish sablefish is offline
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Default Re: Jewish Involvement In Black Slave Trade To The Americas

Barbara.. It is probably all true... I have been traveling. I must admit you have the courage to face the NWO and not back down.. I am looking forward to meeting you.

I would like to personally meet some of the others here too. Perhaps there is a chance that we will have a get together at some point in the future.. A CC gathering of sorts. (I can't imagine how many spooks would show up).

Cheers to you.
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Old 02-25-2006, 10:28 PM
Barbara Barbara is offline
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Default Re: Jewish Involvement In Black Slave Trade To The Americas

Sablefish, it would be my pleasure! It's good to see your posts again.

As far as facing the NWO and not backing down, you know what they say, "A coward dies a thousand deaths, the brave only one...."

I used to say that they can kill me but they can't eat me. Now I find out some of them actually do just that! Hmmm, they are welcome to try but this will be the toughest old bird they have ever tackled, plus, I smoke so the main course will be bitter, too. ROFL

Take care, stay in touch.
__________________
I hate it when they say, "He gave his life for his country." Nobody gives their life for anything. We steal the lives of these kids. We take it away from them. They don't die for the honor and glory of their country. We kill them."-- Admiral Gene LaRocque
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Old 03-24-2006, 12:14 AM
Drew_J Drew_J is offline
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Default Re: Jewish Involvement In Black Slave Trade To The Americas

Great video Barb. I especially like Hoffman's opening comments. What a guy. He had Texe Marrs' Codex Magica on the shelf behind him incase no one noticed.
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Old 04-04-2006, 12:39 AM
Drew_J Drew_J is offline
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Default Re: Jewish Involvement In Black Slave Trade To The Americas

Here is Michael Hoffman II's introduction to Tony Martin's speech:




Dr. Martin’s thesis is that there is an anti black invective which runs through the sacred rabbinic literature of Judaism. That is not to say that it runs through the literature of the bible because there is a distinction between the Hebrew literature and the rabbinic literature. There have been since Dr. Martin’s speech two major texts which have been issued by Judaic scholars.

Jonathan Schorsch is Professor at Columbia University and is the author of the book “Jews and Blacks in the Early Modern World.”

The notorious anti black racist in Judaism happens to be Judaism’s most revered sage Moses Maimonides who taught in his book “Guide of the Perplexed,” that blacks are subhuman.

Schorsch has written 546 pages on the relationship of Jews and Blacks. One would think he would be able to explicate Maimonides’ teaching about black people at length since it forms the heart of Judaism’s attitude towards Blacks. Since Maimonides is indefensible, Schorsch dares not. Hence like any propagandist, the Columbia University Professor buries the inconvenient Maimonides in his footnotes where we find the offending statement quoted in small type with no comment or exegesis of any kind as if it were the doctrine of some long ago forgotten village rabbi instead of the major Halakic authority in Judaism. Neither can he bring himself to quote the Talmudic and Midrashic accounts of the curse on Ham which form the canonical Judaic understanding of black people. By shying away from a confrontation with these texts, he does little to dispel the critique of Tony Martin and others. Professor Martin quotes these anti black rabbinic teachings you are about to see. How can Schorsch claim to debunk the Martin’s of the world when he can’t even bring himself to confront the problem’s sacred Judaic texts.

The Talmud’s creators first of all were lawyers. Let’s observe lawyer Schorsch in action. In his book on page 139 he says, “Seeing a Jewish curse of Ham behind every English notion of Black accursedness will not do. If one looks carefully, the explicit citation of Jewish authors remains extremely rare in early modern writings. Some of course did indeed cite Jewish authorities. Overall, the curse of Ham seems to comprise a case of intra-Christian discursive influence. The Jewish having bible being claimed as a Christian text already long before the mediaeval period, early modern Christian authorities continued to make use of it as a component of the Christian canon.”

Well nice try Professor. The fact is the Israelite bible was misappropriated by the Rabbis, not the Christians, the latter being its rightful heirs. Furthermore, Schorsch misleads readers into thinking that it is the biblical teaching about blacks that is the pivot of anti black racism in the western when he knows very well that the anti black rabbinic dogma is diametrically opposed to the Old Testament. Therefore, citing the Old Testament in a racial context as the curse of Ham’s “intra Christian discursive influence” is nothing more than a lawyer’s trick with a fifty dollar phrase. The mendacious chutzpah represented here is truly audacious. Such a gambit can only be sustained before an audience that is almost totally ignorant of the relevant foundational rabbinic texts.

The curse of Ham as taught by the Rabbis is what Abraham Melemant (sp?) rightly terms, “the locus classicus” of Judaism’s historic antipathy toward black people and the exegetical source of its racist teaching from Babylonia to Moses Maimonides. The dogma that the black is a slave by nature is rabbinic in origin. Canaan is identified as a black man and blacks as in inferior people, only in the Gemarah, which is to say the latter part of the Talmud, the Midrash and later writings of the rabbis. This invective, this racism, is not anywhere in the bible concerning the black race.

The rabbinic account of the malediction against Ham stipulates that his son Canaan and all Canaan’s offspring are to fated to suffer perpetual slavery and black skin without the chance of their condition being ameliorated. It is this anti-Old Testament, Rabbinic gloss that influenced those fifteenth century Renaissance humanists who had crossed over into the forbidden territory of the Talmud, the Misrash and the Cabbala as part of a supposedly enlightened act. It is an irony of history that as a result of this supposedly progressive development, the abominable view of blacks as a perpetual race of slaves became entrenched among the western liberal intelligentsia for at least the next three hundred years.

Here is what Schorsch writes: “Few Jewish thinkers understood Ham’s curse to initiate his or her progeny’s blackness.” That is an out and out prevarication. The classic rabbinic texts hold that the punishment visited upon Ham was the transformation of his son Canaan and all Canaan’s progeny into blacks. “Ham and the dog copulated on the arc. Therefore Ham came forth dark skinned.” That is the canonical rabbinic teaching of Orthodox Judaism and Schorsch’s book covers this up and yet it has become the paradigmatic text for those in University and College level training in this subject to refer to when they are seeking out information on this subject.


There is a second book on this subject by David Goldenberg. He is the author of “The Curse of Ham.”

This has received more lavish praise than Schorsch’s. Both of these have formed the ultimate bull work against the research and scholarship of Dr. Tony Martin. However of course Martin is ever allowed or invited to debate these two supposed authorities on this subject for obvious reasons. Now, Goldenberg’s thesis is just as outrageous as Schorsch’s. He claims that among Jewish writers in the Christian west, we begin to see a curse of Ham mentioned in the same time that Christian writers mention him. He cites on obscure text: Moses Arragel’s Fifteenth Century Castilian Commentary to the Bible. There is no mention of Maimonides or his text “The Guide of the Perplexed” in David Goldenberg’s supposedly exhaustive, encyclopedic study of the Judaic relationship entitled “The Curse of Ham.”

With that background I present to you Professor Tony Martin’s “The Judaic Role in the Black Slave Trade.”
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Old 08-12-2007, 10:51 PM
Drew_J Drew_J is offline
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Default Re: Jewish Involvement In Black Slave Trade To The Americas

Quote:
The Jews Owned and Operated the African Slave Trade

Very few White people owned slaves--slavery was a rich man's pursuit, and slavery did not exist amongst the middle and working classes of White people.

European Whites did not bring the slaves to America. On the contrary, it was the Jews who brought them here (as Louis Fahrakkan has also pointed out). Below is a listing of the Jewish slave ships and the Jewish owners of them.

Name of ship Owners- all are Jews:

The Abigail was owned by Aaron Lopez, Moses Levy, Jacob Franks


The Crown was owned by Issac Levy and Nathan Simpson


The Nassau and Four Sisters were both owned by Moses Levy


Anne & Eliza owned by Justus Bosch and John Abrams


Prudent Betty owned by Henry Cruger and Jacob Phoenix


The Hester and the Elizabeth were both owned by Mordecai and David Gomez


Antigua owned by Nathan Marston and Abram Lyell


Betsy owned by Wm. De Woolf


Polly owned by James De Woolf


White Horse owned by Jan de Sweevts


Expedition owned by John and Jacob Roosevelt


Charlotte owned by Moses and Sam Levy and Jacob Franks


Caracoa owned by Moses and Sam Levy
Source: Elizabeth Donnan, 4 Volumes, 'Documents Illustrative of the History of the Slave Trade to America' Washington, D.C. 1930, 1935 Carnegie Institute of Technology, Pittsburgh, Pa.
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Old 08-17-2007, 01:21 PM
filthyfear filthyfear is offline
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Default Re: Jewish Involvement In Black Slave Trade To The Americas

interesting article... i was completely unaware of any jewish involvement in the slave trade at all.
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Old 07-28-2008, 04:06 AM
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IlluSionS667 IlluSionS667 is offline
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Default Re: Jewish Involvement In Black Slave Trade To The Americas

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Originally Posted by filthyfear View Post
interesting article... i was completely unaware of any jewish involvement in the slave trade at all.
Not surprising. There are far more facts about Jewish involvement in history that are hidden from the public.
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Old 08-28-2008, 03:36 PM
Drew_J Drew_J is offline
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Default Re: Jewish Involvement In Black Slave Trade To The Americas

Good thing I made that transcript. That video link is dead.
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Old 09-07-2008, 02:47 AM
Leonardo Leonardo is offline
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Default Re: Jewish Involvement In Black Slave Trade To The Americas

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Originally Posted by IlluSionS667 View Post
Not surprising. There are far more facts about Jewish involvement in history that are hidden from the public.
Sheesh man...no there's not! The public knows more about the Illuminati these days than the Illuminati knows about themselves! We have to tell them who they are. Their like sitting there reading things about themselves saying, "Damn, I didn't know that!"
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