Thank you for taking the time and effort to make your reply Eire Engineer!
I think we are likely in agreement that Time is the 4th dimension required to explain our reality state!
To first order, time seems to have the same energy density as mass does.
So time is actually highly compressed energy.
It turnes out that all 3-space energy comes from the time domain anyway, being time converted into 3-space energy. And it also returns from 3-space back to the time domain, in an ongoing "circulation" in 4-space.
Time, as such, in a continuum of such magnitude is equally relative!
'Time' Is NOT an absolute dimension in reality.
The ONLY absolute is energy.
Time is a ratio of changes in energy density.
Time on an atom passes much faster than time at the earth level does.Why is it that in the "time zone" of the nucleus of an atom, "time" seems to "slow down" so that the "measured velocity" of the electron appears to be only 1/137th the speed of light? But the electron's behavior seems to be that it is everywhere around the atom at the same time (electron shell), or has a "virtual velocity" of infinity?.
The physical constant alpha turns out to be equal to 1/137.
It is as if the free energy of the electron has been gravitationally red-shifted by a nucleon-sized black hole!.
This changes all observed measurements of time and distance. The amount of time dilation or gravitational red-shifting of the electron in its ground state compared to the masses of the electron and proton are defined by the universally measured constant called "alpha."
Alpha = e^2/hc
The relationship between the "virtual" and "actual" velocity, meaning distance to time, of the electron is "c."
The relationship of mass/energy to time, meaning gravity, is hidden within Planck's Constant "h."
The relationship of electrical charge "e" to time and gravity is found in the "alpha" definition.
Attempting to produce a complete system of universal science based only on the triumvirate of "measured constants" e, c, and h, has proven to be insufficient and incomplete.
It turns out that a minimum of four constants are needed to define all the properties of time and space.
If Einstein had only used his own "alpha" as the basis for solving the M-M Experiment, instead of the Lorentz Transform in his Relativity paper, he would have found that all the forces of nature; the nuclear, electric, magnetic, and gravitational forces, were all simply variations of the same force!.
I propose that Time is a combined Angular Torque Momentum & Gravity Spin Moment Kinetic Energy!.
To my mind the fundamental manifestation of time is change.
I am of the understanding that "time" is an angular torque momentum spin moment of kinetic energy, occasioned by both the earths spin moment about its own axis, combined with its observed heliocentric orbit of the sun while the sun itself orbits the center of the milky way galaxy once every approximately 26,000 years.
As such the potential angular torque momentum spin moment kinetic energy of the time domain is calculable, with all the variables known;-
A ) Mass of the earth
B ) Velocity of the earth thru space in its annual orbit of the sun
C ) Spin rate of the earth about it's own axis
D ) velocity of the sun thru space in its great year orbit of the Milky way universe
In effect we need to calculate the earths angular momentum in a corkscrew spiral thru space taking a year each time to orbit the sun once as we progress along thru the Milky way for ~26,000 years or a great year.
In just this same manner imagine the earths orbit about the sun as if it were a common spiral wound wire spring.
Now imagine that it is say 10 times longer.
Then imagine that it is looped around to form a circle like a snake swallowing its own tail.
Now stretch the coils open to make them not touching each other.
Now place a jewelery bead drilled thru its center onto the stretched coil spring!
Now spin that jewelery bead about its own axis just as the earth spins about its own axis.
Now slide the still spinning bead along the stretched out circular looped coil, taking;-
1. One revolution about it's own axis every 24 hours,
2. One full orbit about the center line of the coil which would represent the suns orbit about the milky way universe, every 356 & 1/4 days.
3. Currently one precession cycle is estimated to be about 25,765 years so the circular length of the looped coil spring on which the bead both spins and slides at the same time is, (365.25 days x 25,765 years) long or 9,410,666.25 earth spins about its own axis (days) before it repeats the cycle. (813,081,564,000 seconds)
4. Earths Mass = 5.9722 × 1024 kg's
5. Earths Velocity = 29.8 km/sec.
Source Wikipedia Quote: The rotational energy
or angular kinetic energy
is the kinetic energy
due to the rotation of an object and is part of its total kinetic energy
. Looking at rotational energy separately around an object's axis of rotation
, one gets the following dependence on the object's moment of inertia
[IMG]file:///C:/DOCUME%7E1/Glenice/LOCALS%7E1/Temp/msohtml1/01/clip_image004.gif[/IMG] is the angular speed
[IMG]file:///C:/DOCUME%7E1/Glenice/LOCALS%7E1/Temp/msohtml1/01/clip_image005.gif[/IMG] is the moment of inertia
around the axis of rotation.[IMG]file:///C:/DOCUME%7E1/Glenice/LOCALS%7E1/Temp/msohtml1/01/clip_image006.gif[/IMG] is the kinetic energy
. The mechanical work
required for / applied during rotation is the torque times the rotation angle. The instantaneous power
of an angularly accelerating body is the torque times the angular frequency. For free-floating (unattached) objects, the axis of rotation is commonly around its center of mass
Note the close relationship between the results for linear (or translational) and rotational motion; the formula for the
[IMG]file:///C:/DOCUME%7E1/Glenice/LOCALS%7E1/Temp/msohtml1/01/clip_image007.gif[/IMG]In the rotating system, the moment of inertia
, takes the role of the mass, m
, and the angular velocity
, ω, takes the role of the linear velocity, v
. The rotational energy
of a rolling cylinder
varies from one half of the translational energy (if it is massive) to the same as the translational energy (if it is hollow).
As an example, let us calculate the rotational kinetic energy of the Earth. As the Earth has a period of about 23.93 hours, it has an angular velocity of 7.29×10−5 rad/s. The Earth has a moment of inertia, I = 8.04×1037 kg·m2.
Therefore, it has a rotational kinetic energy of 2.138×1029 J.
Part of it can be tapped using tidal power
. This creates additional friction of the two global tidal waves, infinitesimally slowing down Earth's angular velocity ω
. Due to conservation
of angular momentum
this process transfers angular momentum to the Moon
motion, increasing its distance from Earth and its orbital period (see tidal locking
for a more detailed explanation of this process).
5.37×1041 J the theoretical total mass-energy of the Earth [font="]I suggested that just one second of the earths total kinetic energy
equals ~9 x 10 ^ 16 joules of energy / second.
I believe the earths total potential energy
is closer to ~ 6.6045034566790398902710823240361 x 10^28 joules per second.
The kinetic value ignores the spin moment inertial value, while the total potential energy includes it.
If however we were to harvest (convert) the Kinetic energy into another form then theoretically it is perhaps possible to de - orbit the earth out of its geostationary orbital distance from the sun, and have it spiral into the sun!
While harvesting (converting from one form of energy to another) some of it's spin moment (gravitational force) which we already currently already do if you consider for example the use of hydro power generation (gravity) - the only effect should be the lengthening of the duration of a day as the earths spin rate about its own axis decelerates in response.
It all comes back to what do we consider time to be?
To me at least, at this point in "time" I am of the opinion that clocks measure the rate of spin of the earth about its own axis (broken down into hours minutes seconds etc) and that THIS is in effect a measure of the force of gravity NOT TIME.
So for me at least clocks do not measure time - they measure the force of gravity or the rate of spin of the earth about its own axis,
Time to me at least is measured by calendars - which keep track of the earths position in space in our annual orbit of the sun as we traverse the orbital path of the sun over the course of one great year!
So time is an angular torque momentum spin moment kinetic energy force!.
Least that's what I reckon at this point in time!.