A Divided Kingdom
"And knowing their thoughts He said unto them, ‘Every kingdom divided against itself is brought to desolation and every city or house divided against itself shall not stand."1
"Divide and dominate" is the slogan of the world today as well as of every home, every mother, every father, every daughter, every son, every chief, every king, every nation and every culture. If someone asks me about the reasons for the suffering of humanity, I shall answer that the slogan, "Divide and dominate" is the reason. Therefore, as long as you have this slogan, misfortune will follow you as the shadow follows its master. Christ says, "Every kingdom, every organized life, every organized nation divided cannot stand." I shall tell you why it cannot stand.
Every house implies the conditions from which all benefits flow, since the kingdom is built upon the home. Christ says, "If a kingdom is divided, the house cannot stand either." Therefore, both the kingdom and the house will collapse together, or in the commercial language - they will go bankrupt. To go bankrupt is to become a slave, an ox yoked in the field with a person with a prick behind you saying, "Since you have studied how to divide and dominate, come on now - plough!" Today all Bulgarians in the fields preach this teaching all the time, "Go on, son, divide and dominate, divide one furrow from another." You say, "How nice these fields look!" But I ask you, "Cannot wheat grow in the earth without it being divided?" In the distant past, before the existence of human beings, how did all fruit and flowers grow? The way all plants are cultivated today is new. A man says, in order that my wife should cook better, she needs spanking." The mistress says, "If my maid-servant is to tend to her work better, she should not go out often and needs spanking now and then." Whenever the maid comes back from some place, her mistress immediately gets angry and demands to know where she had been loafing all that time. However, what is the result of the present order of life? Every person, rich or poor, hungry or fed, feels a nervousness, a discontentment, like something is lacking. What will happen if your heart, your stomach, your eyes, your hands and feet and some other part of your body separates from it?
Today people act according to the Law of Division as sons and daughters are divided from their parents. If you enter a religious society, there you will also find division. The heart, the stomach, the brain and the lungs in all people are not at their places, they are divided. They say that worldly people quarrel about money, but what are religious people quarreling about? Therefore, money is not the cause of this hassle, it is only a condition for that. Why do men and women quarrel, why do brothers and sisters quarrel, what is the reason for that? It is a false idea that people think they will be happier this way. Only unorganized things can be divided, organized things are not divided. You cannot divide virtues, for if you divide them, evil is born. If the bottles in which you carry water crack and fall to pieces, where will your water be stored? If the inkpot of a student breaks and the ink is spilled, what will become of the white dress of the student? It will be stained. The inkpot will say, "Since the teaching is divide and dominate, I became divided and where the black spots are - that is my dominion."
Christ says, "Every house divided against itself shall not stand," i.e. when division appears, no rational life can progress any longer. The home is the Emblem (Symbol) of Love; it cannot stand if instability arises or evil, hatred, oppositions are born for these are nothing but gaps. The first impression of gaps is awkwardness. If we step on marshy ground where there is no hard footing, we sink. Therefore, division causes gaps in life that are the places of evil. In present day life, in order to organize a society, it is necessary that all gaps should be filled up. You have strong teeth, but in time a small cavity appears in which the deposited food particles start decaying and the tooth begins to disintegrate and emit a bad smell. Why does it smell badly? Because there are cavities in the tooth. It is in a process of division and its particles are in conflict. Someone asks me, "Why do I have a headache?" Because there are cavities inside. "My stomach aches." Because you have cavities inside. If a particle wants to separate itself from an organ, quitting its job, and if there is no other cell to substitute it; an unhealthy condition in the given place arises, which is nothing other than an interruption of the existing divine bond. If you have failures in life, they are due to this great law. In such cases the doctors say that the cells in such a place have fallen ill.
When there is division in us, we feel awkwardness. When does division take place? When avarice appears, i.e. the feeling of possessing and dominating which is called individualization. By the process of division nations have arisen, as well as the home and so on. This process is admissible in nature, but there is no life in it. In cosmogony it is called chaos. Billions of years ago there were great wars among the gods in the space in which they used enormous cannons. The worlds were created by the volleys of these cannons. Out of fatigue, these gods diminished and became the small people who are reasoning today about great questions - "We divided the world after creation" - not realizing they created it. I say, "You gave God the materials, you brought the stones out of which God created the world." The human body is formed the same way. At first there was struggle among the small cells and after they were exhausted, God brought them together and today they all form the human organism. We say, "How wonderfully people are made!" Christ says to His disciples, "No work can succeed, if there is division." You accept a thought and then you doubt, "Am I right?"
I say, "You are divided and that is why you cannot have any success." You decide to build a house, or to take up some science, but you start wavering. You will not succeed if you are divided. If a girl and a young man doubt each other, they should not marry. Doing this, both men and women today begin to play with each other during their whole life, creating a fire in which they eventually burn up. In this way the whole family will disappear because division entered therein. Learned people say in such a case, "This family degenerated," but I say, "There is division in this family." Someone may ask me, "Shall I enter the Kingdom of God?" If there is division in you, you cannot enter It. "Shall we become learned, shall we be saved, shall we be good?" If you are divided, you will not become learned, you will not succeed or become good." You will ask me, "But can a person not be divided?" Yes, they can.
The process of division is mechanical, not spiritual. In the world there must not be any spiritual division. What you call division, for instance the sprouting of a tree, is not division, but multiplication. Multiplication is an organic process. Division is the breaking of ties with the very source of life. People today frequently create bad thoughts themselves. We see a person aspiring to God but we doubt the purity of their intentions and say: "The reasons they are aspiring to God are not religious or noble, but some devil has obsessed them." We act as some Jew. Today all people accuse the Jews, but the word "Jew" is not bad, it has a deep meaning. Everyone bearing a cross and suffering is a Jew. Why do they suffer? Because they have not learned the deep meaning of this word.
Some will ask me, "But what does the word "Bulgarian" mean?" Some philologists say that the word comes from the word boulg`our2, but that is not its origin. Then I would ask you, "But where has boulg`our come from?" In the original language every word had a definite meaning. All languages today are translations of an Ancient Divine Language, which is also the original one. Three languages originally sprang from it: Chinese, Hebrew and Sanskrit. The Chinese write vertically starting from the top down, that is the first translation. Hebrew is written from right to left, while in Sanskrit the writing is from left to right, i.e. from east to west. That is how we also write. The Chinese language is positive, but the other two are passive - from them sprang the rest of the languages. The Turkish word iş3 signifies the original being working. Hebrew has the yod4, while other languages, such as French, have the double u - w. The Turks say, işbu5, meaning that we must listen to that Being which is working within us. We know this root and say, "Shia,"6 i.e. I am doing something. He Who sent me originally to the earth taught me to work.
Christ says, "Every Kingdom divided against itself shall not stand." Let us take the following example: if the child in the womb of its mother wished to be separate in the very first month or if the mother wants to part with it, she will abort it. This can happen from the first to the ninth month. When the ninth month is over, the child does not separate but it is born. This process has reached its final stage and the child is born. Everything that has started working finishes its cycle. Therefore, each kingdom which does not reach the end of its way shall not stand. I want you to observe this law, which has relevance in your life. Some ask me, "Why did these misfortunes come to us?" You have divided something within yourselves. What will happen if your heart and mind become divided? Some say, "Let me have a mind, I don’t need a heart." Others say, "Let me have a heart, I don’t need a mind." These are delusions. A young woman says, "I am looking for a young man with less brains and more money." Happiness does not rest on money. Often people say, "In order not to suffer, one must not love." Unhappiness springs from the fact that when a Divine Thought or Divine Feeling comes to us, we want to abort it. This gives rise to great suffering. Therefore such a house, such a society, such people of learning all degenerate and new people come in their place.
In the verse I read to you, Christ makes two comparisons: every kingdom and every house. Christ says, "If I cast out evil spirits by God’s Spirit, the Kingdom of God has come to you." Christ does not say that He separates, but that He casts out the evil spirits. Casting out and dividing are two different concepts. For a man to cast out his wife and to separate from her are two different things. If you cast a person out, that means you are looking for another place where they can work; while if you separate that is to break the bond the person had which provided they with conditions to work. When someone tells you there is no God, they separate you. When a man assures his wife that she can live with another man just as well, he has separated her. She starts living with one man after another to her undoing. This is a general law.
The Turks say that a rolling stone cannot make a foundation. Some say, "Let us change our ideas," but changing ideas and rolling from one place to another are two different things. To change ideas is one thing; but to roll ideas another thing. To change oxen is one thing, but to turn them into flat sausages or dried meat is quite a different thing. Now we wish to reform present-day society, but the first thing we must learn is to stop dividing. For that, you should learn the art of uniting. It is a very easy thing to divide, but it is a very difficult thing to unite. When the word "divide" comes to your mind, let its opposite, "unite", appear as well and you will learn in time to transform dividing into uniting. You can separate only the unseen things in your organism. Therefore, the hidden law in this verse is: The first and most important thing is not to divide what is good. The religious, the good people must not be divided.
In America there are many outstanding ministers, but often people start gossiping and want to substitute one minister with another. If that is done, will the world be set right? In some countries, people are dissatisfied with their king, calling him a bad person and wishing to substitute him by another king. Such endless divisions appear also within us. The evil lies in the fact that we want to change one thing for another. Do you think that the second king, knowing there is a dethroning, a changing, will not take precautions to keep his throne by creating an army with a cavalry and setting up prisons and scaffolds for the criminals? And what is all this that he will perform? Nothing but division. By this he wants to say, "Instead of me losing my throne, you will lose your place." I ask you: what is wrong with the king keeping his place if he is not disturbing you? Would a cock disturb you if he perched on a hedge or a tree and crowed? I have seen children throwing stones at a cock when he crows, but he says: "Why should I not sing in this place?" You are a cock and can take one place; but in this world there is room for thousands of cocks. Then I say - in life the cocks must crow and the hens must cackle. The crowing of the cocks forecasts nice weather, while the cackling of the hens means that the divine work given them to perform is completed. If a hen tries to crow like a cock that is not a good sign. When a cock crows he says to the hen, "There are favorable conditions for you to lay your egg." Then he walks around the hen, asking her, "Did you finish your work?" "Yes." "Well, then, I am glad we accomplished a fine work for the Lord in this world," the cock answers. But more people ask, "Why does the cock crow, why does the hen cackle?" The hen says, "Give me more work." People say about someone that he sings like a cock or that she cackles like a hen. I respect all men who sing like a cock and all women who cackle like hens, but only after they have finished their work.
Religious people often cackle before finishing their work, before the egg is laid. What is the meaning of the laying of an egg? These religious people have a project, for instance, to form a society and start talking about it - how they will form it, what they will do and so on, but they only talk and do not act. A young maiden draws up a plan for her life and starts dreaming how she will marry, how she will live with her husband, how she will bring up her children, but all this is cackling before the work is done. When you have a plan, begin to sing, this is the song of the cock; but when you finish your work, cackle. When one thinks, they must sing; but when one feels, one must cackle. When I say that a person must cackle when thinking (these are synonyms), I mean that there is a similarity between thinking and singing. Cackling and feeling are also synonyms. I am explaining a philosophy and it makes no difference whether you sing or cackle. It means that people are free to sing or cackle, i.e. whom the Lord has asked to sing, let them sing, and whom He has asked to cackle, let them cackle. But if the cock refuses to crow and the hen- to cackle, there is division. Many women ask, "Why has the Lord made me a woman?" That you may cackle, which is an excellent work. It means that you must announce to the world that the work is finished. When a cock starts crowing, it shows that the work is in the beginning stage; but when a hen cackles, it shows that the work is at its end. I say that the tail of the snake is much more important than its head. The snake catches its victim by its tail; the wolf catches its victim by its mouth; the horse kills its victim by its hooves; but most animals use their tails. The tail is woman, i.e. that member of the general organism who finishes the work. The head begins the work but the tail finishes it. I shall not go into detail about the tail. Some say, "We do not want to be tails." I ask you, "What is the head worth without the tail?" The whole body is the tail of the head. Therefore, we should get rid of our wrong notions about the tail and the head and know that at times we are the tail and at other times the head. When we perform some movement, we are tails; but when we find that Great Law of Organizing, then we are heads. Many women are tails now, but in the future they will be heads and many men who are heads now will become tails. But there are all kinds of heads: garlic, onion, ox ones, heads of flies and so on. It is very generally said - heads. What kind of a head do you want to be? If you had the head of a cock that crows or the tail of a hen that cackles - would you be doing lofty work then?
Taking an egg a hen has laid, you can learn how the world was created for it contains the clue of the whole universe. All truths are hidden in that egg. The whole world is nothing but an enlarged egg. When a hen lays her egg she cackles, meaning to say: "I have laid this egg, the same way God has made the world." You take the egg, boil it and do not understand how the world was made. We act the same way with many fine thoughts which come into our mind. We must take the egg and taste it with our mind and not with our stomach. We sell the fine things in us. A beautiful thought comes to the mind of a girl which makes her features attractive - her nose, her mouth and eyes - but she begins to sell herself. They tell her that a young man owns 1,000 leva but she does not like him. Or another young man has 5,000 leva but she does not like him either. She is looking for a wealthy duke and sells her face.
Some author gifted by God starts writing something, but they begin thinking how much money they will get for that. If they think of gain, they cannot express any Divine Idea their writing. Take for example the novelists of today writing a novel in which the heroine faints and dies. I do not understand why the hero or heroine must die. This means that this author understands that the heroine has gone astray from the source of the Divine. A man or a woman who faints have parted with God. When a person overeats, they faint which shows that they have eaten unnatural, impure food. People who eat natural food do not faint. When students read some novels today they like the idea of a hero who faints and try to imitate him. A young man speaks to a girl, she faint out of love and he tries to bring her to.
"Every kingdom divided against itself shall not stand." If such man and woman get married, they will not live well together. Keep in mind that what I am talking to you about are relations within nature as well. I am talking to you about that Great Law in Nature, that Living Great Truth which you also may come in contact with, i.e. the new teaching in the world. The Law in this Great DivineTruth is the following: contemporary people of learning will bind and unbind you, yoke and unyoke you; that is why there will be a prick. This is no religion. In the Divine Teachings you will bind and unbind your self. When you come to me and say you want to follow my teaching, I shall ask you: "Are you ready to bind and unbind yourselves?" Now we want all people today to turn from an animal state into rational beings. I want you to put on your yoke by yourselves and to take it off. I ask your ox, "You who have will, do you know why you have a yoke around your neck and can you get rid of it?" You go to church, bow and cross yourselves, but I ask you, "Do you know why you make the sign of the cross, what have you learnt in this life by this act?" You should know that placing your hand on your forehead is a sign that this head must think, i.e. my cock must crow; when your hand is placed down, it means: does my hen cackle? Is there love in my heart? When you place your fingers on your right side you are asking, "Is my egg laid?" On the left side it means, "Is my egg being hatched?" All this means, doing a great work for God.
You will say that I interpret these things my own way. You interpret them in a different way then. So when you cross yourself, put this idea into action. I want to say that every act, thought or feeling of ours must have a definite value within our soul. In this world you will have many hardships for the following reason: there are hens which do not lay eggs so they do not cackle and if they do lay eggs, they hatch them in other hens’ nests, or hatch the eggs of other hens. When you hatch the eggs of someone else, discontentment rises in you. Let me explain what this means. Every egg is an Emblem (Symbol) of a life. If you seek the Divine Life, you will find it in a Divine Egg; if you seek intellectual life, you will find it in an intellectual egg; if you are looking for love, you will find it in an egg of this kind. In this respect people are very practical and have common sense: when they want to have a nightingale hatched, they place the egg of a nightingale in a nest; when they want to have apples, they sow the seeds of apples. You cannot sow one kind of seed and get a different result. People in this world act the same way, namely those who divide. This dividing exists inside you and all misfortune comes from it for it is a destruction of human power. In our present culture this law of division exists. You have sons and daughters and wish them to succeed in life. If you can bring unity in your own souls you will be able to do the same for them and they will succeed.
Make several experiments, not only one; for the first experiment may turn out successful, but it does not imply that all others will always turn out successful. An experiment is successful when in every case it turns out well. I have watched jugglers who skillfully stuck twelve daggers near the chest of a woman without hurting her. All their throws turned out successful. When you watch such a sight, you think the woman will be stabbed to death. You must be such master too. But what are you doing today? You stab the heart or the head of some person quite skillfully. Someone leads a spiritual life for five or six years and then gives it up. Why? Someone has stuck a knife in their head or in their heart. Division has taken place in them.
In my view God is not a need but a necessity of the world. Life itself, thought or will are manifestations of God. All that is sublime or noble in us is divine manifestation. No Lord exists outside of this. Someone says, "I want to see God." You cannot see God if you first do not feel Him, as you cannot see the fruit of an apple, if you have not sown the seed of one. Many of you have not laid eggs, but you say, "I got this and that done." No. The work has not been finished if the cock has not crowed and the hen has not cackled. One must think while another must feel; one must begin the work and another must finish it. I want you to finish this work. You will answer me, "We are people incapable, uncultured." I do not want you to turn the earth, it is turning anyway; but I do want you to finish the work that you are appointed.
You say, "I cannot set the world right."
It is set right.
"I cannot help the poor."
Not only you, but the whole world is taking care of them. I ask you: “How do those small midges live which you do not take care of?” Therefore, in the philosophy of today and in our minds there are vacuities; a result of which disharmony appears and we pass through painful states.
Christ told the Jews they were divided and every kingdom divided against itself is brought to desolation which means that "since you do not believe in me, your kingdom will not progress." The same applies to your religion. And actually their kingdom ended there. This law is true of all nations. Every nation that says that people cannot live rightly in this world cannot expect anything good. The Bulgarians, for instance, have no success in war. This shows that one cannot make progress on the principle "divide and dominate." A mind and a heart are necessary. You as a nation must learn to think well and to feel rightly. There is no nation which does not feel the oppression today. All nations which have oppressed other nations will be crossed out as an organization. All such nations have disappeared and only ones in which there is no division have survived.
Paul says, "There is neither Jew, nor Greek; neither Scythian, nor barbarian." You say, "He is a Christian, but he is an Englishman; that one is a German and so on." There is no division in Christ. The Jews are people of the heart, but since they are very near the stomach, they are materialistic people who like money. They are close both to the spiritual and to the material that is why they pierced Christ in the region of the heart. They said, "We want to become a great nation," that is why they lost what was given to them and for 2,000 years they have been without a kingdom. Now they are being placed again in the old land. The Jewish kingdom will be small.7 God says to them, "Your land will be neither large nor small." So the heart is already defined.
You will ask me, "But where are the Bulgarians?" The Bulgarians are in the liver, because they are very rancorous, they like the land very much and say, "We need wheat, wheat." The liver is necessary but when it is enlarged, misfortunes arrive. If it becomes small this is also bad. The liver must function in order to produce bile. Therefore, if the Bulgarian people vanish in the world there will be constipation and thence - great suffering.
Today everybody is asking, "What will become of us at the Conference?"8 God is telling those at the Conference to be careful with the liver, because if its bile bursts, all cultures will go to the devil. You will find the places of the other nations. So do not groan and worry for God is taking care of the liver since it is a very necessary organ and the body cannot do without it. Therefore, there must be no division among you. There is a close connection between the heart and the liver. They are very sympathetic to each other.9 The heart is very sensitive, while the liver is more passive, so they like one another. And so I solve the problem of the Bulgarians - as the liver they are in their place and the bile will not burst. Be grateful you are Bulgarians and do not be troubled what will become of you.
All of you must try to have unity in your thoughts without any division or fear. There may be fear, but in its place; there may be poverty, but meet it and send it off politely. When a poor person visits you, wash their feet, feed them and then see them off. Act the same way with wealth. Remember that in all our beliefs, every teaching is in its place: that is why Christ says that there must not be any division among us. Today there are many divisions, many parties competing for supremacy in ruling; but it would be better if all of them united and played all together as in an orchestra. At this moment unity is necessary, not division. Bulgarians cause themselves much harm by this division. I do not blame them for this, but rather turn their attention to this fact, because the cells of the liver are the most stupid and uncultured cells, but they contain the conditions of the future culture. Tthere is a great difference among the different kinds of livers. For instance, there is a difference between the liver of an ox and that of a person; between the liver of an angel and a seraph also - for the cells of the latter think like human beings. Do not think that if you are the liver, you are very cultured. This condition in which you find yourselves on the earth is very uncertain for there is much division among you. You Bulgarians do not know which Lord you are serving for you are Anglophiles, Russophiles, Germanophiles and all other kinds of names, but I say, "Turn to God and cross yourselves before Him. He will make you wise and good so that you can lay this egg and hatch it well, or it will become an addled egg." There is a close connection between politics and religion.
Know that the present culture has inscription, "Join yourselves and unite." It says in the Scriptures, "If hands are joined there will be no success for thieves also join themselves." When Bulgarians make a horo10 they join hands, but that is a gain. Why do they dance in a circle? To be inspired by the motion of life and then the lad and the maiden get married. Marriage is a strange motion. Do not move in a circle, but walk in a straight line.
I make the following analogy: the four wheels of a wagon roll while it is moving, but what do they learn? Nothing, they only raise the dust around. If I ask the axis what it has learned, it will say, "I did not turn like the wheels and I did not learn anything." If I ask the oxen who move forward what they have learned, they will say, "Nothing, we only raised the dust on the road." The driver will tell me the same thing. But culture does not consist of nothing. You will roll and you will not roll; you will move and you will not move; you will hold the reins and not hold them - culture consists of all this. When we return home we shall interpret this and say that the wheels rolled, the axis did not move, the oxen moved; there were reins. We are a Divine Wagon which is moving to transport the Divine Life from one place to another: to the mill, then to our homes to make bread when we return home. Where is our home? In the field, nearer the Lord. I would prefer to eat out in the open, in nature, by a clear spring than to be in the best restaurant in Sofia. The home is amid nature and then it is closer to God.
By saying that every Kingdom divided against itself cannot stand, Christ meant that every kingdom and every home based on violence will be divided and vanish away. Therefore this criminal teaching must be discarded and in the future there should not be division among you. If there is division among you, you will only see the back side of life, because you and life will move in two opposite directions. If there is division among you, you will see only the back side of God, the back of the Kingdom, the shadow of things. Do not be divided, but let several sisters unite and attract people.
I see you divided into parties now. When I look at you, I can tell who is a radoslavist, who is a democrat or a radical. How do I know you? By your heads, for every head has a special shape. Since you are a radical, do you know how to pull out roots? Do you know their laws? If you are a democrat, do you know the laws of democracy? Some call themselves priests, Christians or teachers, but you must know your subject both in theory and in practice. If you do not know this, you are nothing yet. Sometimes I see you in the position of professors, but where is your practical experience? You will answer, "That is how we have studied." Yes, but I told you to roll and not to roll. To roll means you are in the periphery; but not to roll means you are in the center. They who are self-possessed are in the center.
If you give up this teaching of division, all winter days will be nice and you will not catch cold. I cannot catch cold even in the draft, because I do not divide, living under another law by a different stove. They who do not divide cannot catch cold. The Lord says, "If you obey Me and do not divide, your world will be clear and all blessings will be poured down on you." If you listen to the Lord and do not divide, but work for Him, He will manifest Himself to you. How? As a musician in a house. He enters the house and if he is in a good disposition, he takes the violin and starts playing, but if he is in a bad mood, he will not play. You want the Lord to play for you. But if the Lord finds your strings broken how will He play?
You say, "We want wonders." Silly wonders do not exist. In the world exists only one great wisdom wherein everything must be in its place. Do not divide, but unite and send out good thoughts everywhere. You ask, "Can this be?" Yes, it can. In my vocabulary there is a single word "CAN".
Some say, "Then we can divide." No, this cannot be because they who divide lose their power. You can become weak. To such a person I say, "You can become rich, in order to become poor." But to another I say, "You can become rich." So that the result of these two "can’s" is that one is wealth, the other is poverty.
This is what Christ meant by His words to the Jews, "Cast out the evil spirits with the Spirit of God, I put order in life and do not divide; but you will be placed in a school to learn the Law of Uniting." Let the Bulgarians learn this lesson from the Jews and avoid being put in their position. The Jews will say, "It is unforgivable for the Bulgarians not to have learned this law in the course of these 2,000 years. What a sin will they commit, if they do not listen to you now." But today all people say, "What evil people the Jews are!" No, they are very good people, because in my opinion, "the worst people" in this world are the best people in the other world and "the best people" in this world are "the worst" in the other world.
Do not divide your mind from your heart; let all men and women unite and let all nations unite in this future culture. Finally, let the human spirit be united with God. Only then can we have a higher culture bringing to the world the long expected peace and joy.
Sermon held on December 8, 1918
1 Matthew 12:25
2 Bg., pounded wheat, (tr. note)
3 Turkish for 1/ work, 2/occupation, 3/ question (ed. note)
4 ι - the Hebrew letter yod (ed. note)
5 Turkish, (dated) this very one, the present one. (ed. note)
6 Bg., verb: sew (tr. note)
7 Israel was established in 1948 some 40 years after this talk was delivered, (ed. note)
8 Bulgaria was punished for its part in World War I (through the Treaty of Neuilly) by loosing territories and being subjected to heavy reparations, (ed. note)
9 In 1943 Tsar Boris cancelled orders for the deportation of Bulgaria’s Jews in the face of protests led by prominent political figures and Metropolitan Stefan, head of the Bulgarian Orthodox Church. (ed. note)
10 Horo is a traditional Bulgarian dance in which the dancers join hands to form a chain. (ed. note)