Re: I think another powerful force ... is urbanization
I remember the great John Curtain, prime minister of Australia in WW11 having a policy of decentralisation.
De population of cities through moving industries into rural areas or rural centers, this was for strategic and other reasons, it was belived even in WW11 that Sydney was vastly overpopulated.
John Curtain died before he had a chance to implement his grand vision and if he had of, Australia would be far different now and many would suggest for the better.
Largly cities actually produce very little other than for its own purposes and produces massive strain on the environment.
Far better I think to relocate industries away from big cities and allow most of the population to live with the benifites of both a rural and a city lifestyle the best of both.
I bet you would see a lot less people sitting around doing fuckall, less drugs less gangs etc, overall a happier more productive natural society.